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認識 R
1 What

1. R(appeared in 1993) was created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland. 2. R is an implementation of the S programming language(appeared in 1976) combined with lexical scoping semantics inspired by Scheme. S was created by John Chambers while at Bell Labs. 3. R is not a statistics program per se, but a programming language that works very well for statistics. 4. Version of R: alpha(1997), 1.0(2000), 2.0(2004), 3.0(2013)

1.1 originators
1.1.1 Ross Ihaka The University of Auckland, New Zealand R : Past and Future History
1.1.2 Robert Gentleman
1.2 contributors
1.3 based on
1.3.1 S language John Chambers Bell Labs commercial implementation S-PLUS
1.4 version

主版本號.子版本號.修正版本號 套件的相容性依主版本號而定

1.4.1 core group(1997) 1.0(2000-02) 2.0(2004-10) 3.0(2013-04) the latest release for Windows
1.5 a statistics program
1.5.1 a programming language works very well for statistics
2 Why

1. http://www.statmethods.net 2. http://r4stats.com/articles/popularity/ 3. 2013年KDnuggets調查 http://www.kdnuggets.com/2013/08/languages-for-analytics-data-mining-data-science.html 4. R is a command line programming language, easy to keep an explicit record of actions performed 5. R can integrate with other packages and language 6. Google picture search: --r's popularity --r in data analysis --Popularity of Data Analysis Software

2.1 Quick-R: Why use R?
2.1.1 Why R has A Steep Learning Curve
2.2 r4stats.com

Articles>The Popularity of Data Analysis Software

2.2.1 Why R is Hard to Learn 2012-06-13 2014-12-09 Unhelpful Help Misleading Function or Parameter Names Too Many Commands ...
2.3 KDnuggets
2.3.1 Annual Software Poll 15th 16th 17th
2.4 TIOBE Index

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIOBE_index TIOBE stands for "The Importance Of Being Earnest". (updated once a month)

3 Which
3.1 R

1. OS: Linux, Mac, Windows 2. choose CRAN mirror(Taiwan)-->Download R for Windows-->base 3. CRAN(Comprehensive R Archive Network)is a network of ftp and web servers around the world that store identical, up-to-date, versions of code and documentation for R. 4. 設定語系: 將"C:\Program Files\R\R-3.2.3\etc\Rconsole"檔案中的"language"設為"En"

3.2 RStudio
3.3 R commander
3.4 RKWard
3.4.1 install KDE
4 Where
4.1 websites
4.1.1 CRAN

1. CRAN Task Views: Each 'Task View' relates to a research area or method (e.g. 'Spatial, 'Genetics, 'Graphics') and gives a brief overview of the packages that may be useful for your analysis ref. a. CRAN Task Views - Mathematics and Statistics http://www.maths.lancs.ac.uk/~rowlings/R/TaskViews/ b. another look at CRAN Task Views(3021 packages as of May, 2011) http://www.r-bloggers.com/another-look-at-cran-task-views/ c. currently, https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/ 2. Documentation>Contributed: Manuals, tutorials, etc. provided by users of R.

4.1.2 Quick-R
4.1.3 r4stats
4.1.4 rseek.org

A custom front-end to Google search engine to assist in finding content related to the R language.

4.1.5 Rbloggers

A center for R users to find and read bloggers who write about the statistical programming language, R. Learn R
4.1.6 StackOverflow

1. A language-independent collaboratively edited question and answer site for programmers. 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stack_Overflow

4.1.7 Learn Data Science Online
4.1.8 inside-R

A Community Site for R – Sponsored by Revolution Analytics

4.1.9 For Dummies
4.1.10 Wikipedia Wikibooks R Programming Wikiversity How to use R
4.1.11 R Graph Gallery

Google search: R Graph Gallery https://plot.ly/r/ http://rgraphgallery.blogspot.tw/ http://scs.math.yorku.ca/index.php/R_Graphs_Gallery http://www.sr.bham.ac.uk/~ajrs/R/r-gallery.html http://www.r-graph-gallery.com/

4.1.12 etc.
4.2 University web
4.2.1 Resources to help you learn and use R Institute for Digital Research and Education University of California, Los Angeles
4.2.2 Applied Nonparametric Statistics Department of Statistics Eberly College of Science The Pennsylvania State University
4.2.3 Getting Started with "R" Boston University School of Public Health
4.2.4 Data wrangling, exploration, and analysis with R Department of Statistics UBC University of British Columbia, Canada
4.3 R Project Documentation>Books
4.4 youtube
5 When
5.1 anytime
6 How
6.1 基本操作
6.1.1 標記&符號 command prompt > continuation prompt + command seperation ; cancel a command Esc comment character # assignment symbol <-

在 Rstudio 中可用 alt+-打出"<-" =, -> case sensitive Google's R Style Guide
6.1.2 工作目錄 getwd() setwd()
6.1.3 Help help.start() help/? example() help.search/?? RSiteSearch()
6.1.4 建立資料 basic data type 數值(numeric) integer double 複數(complex) 邏輯值(logical) TRUE/T FALSE/F 文字(character) built-in Constants ?Constants pi letters LETTERS month.abb month.name 常用函數 paste() 原始資料(raw) charToRaw() rawToChar() 常用函數 c()

concatenate, combine, collect seq() rep() Datasets data() iris head(iris) tail(iris) str(iris) summary(iris) View(iris) UCI Machine Learning Repository
6.1.5 資料輸入/輸出 scan() cat() read.csv() write.csv()
6.1.6 基本運算 ^,+-(unary),+-*/,%/%,%% Basic Mathematical Functions abs(), log(), sin(), factorial(), sum(), prod(), ..., etc. 排序 sort() rank() order()
6.2 data object type
6.2.1 vector(向量) 元素 性質相同 元素指標 [ ] 建立方式 c() seq() rep()
6.2.2 matrix(矩陣) 建立方式 dim() matrix() cbind()、rbind() 矩陣運算 +、-、*、/、%*%
6.2.3 array(陣列) 建立方式 dim() matrix()
6.2.4 factor(因子) 建立方式 factor() as.factor() ordered
6.2.5 data fraem(資料框) 不同類型資料 二維結構
6.2.6 list(串列) 不同 類別 長度 元素指標 [[ ]]
6.2.7 time series(時間序列) ts()

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