The basis is SDCA / PDCA
- Standardize-do-check-act (SDCA)
Plan- do-check-act (PDCA)
Example: How we use PDCA
Step 1. Team Formation
- Members with sufficient product and process knowledge
- Members with ability to make decisions and carry out the required activities
Step 2. Detailed Problem Description
- Who discovered the problem?
- What is the problem?
- When was the problem detected?
- Where was the problem detected?
- Why is this a problem?
- How was the problem discovered?
- What is the problem scale?
Step 3. Interim Сontainment Action
- Carry out containment actions, that will not allow the present problem to spread
8D. Step 4. Root Cause Analysis
the Ishikawa diagram (Fish Bone)
- Lead a brainstorming session and identify all the possible causes of the problem. Answer by question: Why did it happen?
- For all possible causes use most deeper analysis if necessary
- Prioritize high likely causes for next analysis
«5 Why » method
Use repeating the question «Why?»
Each answer forms the next question
- To search the root cause, you do not have to answer all 5 Why, sometimes its can be less or more.
If all efforts have been in vain
- Try to change your mind and fill new FishBone
- Invite not 8D Team members, for «outside view»
8D. Step 5. Corrective Action
Formulate a list of corrective actions
- The aim is to eliminate the identified root cause.
- All proposed corrective actions should be initially analyzed, including taking into account the risk of new problems
8D. Step 6. Validate Corrective Actions
- Need to make sure that corrective actions have been effective
8D. Step 7. Identify & Implement Preventive Action
- This step applies as to the current project and as others
- 8D. Stage 8. Team & Individual Recognition
Example: 8D using
QC Story. Step1. Choose a topic
- Why this topic was chosen?
QC Story. Step2. Understanding the current state of the process and setting goals
- To Gemba
- Data collection
QC Story. Step3. Analysis of collected data to identify the root cause of the problem
- Using 5 Why
- QC Story. Step4. Definition of countermeasures
- QC Story. Step5. Implementation of countermeasures
- QC Story. Step6. Confirmation of the countermeasure effect
- QC Story. Step7. Establishment / revision of standards, in order to avoid re-emergence of the problem
- QC Story. Step 8. Analysis of the above processes, work with next problem
TBP (Toyota Business Practice)
- TBP. Step1. Describe the problem
- TBP. Step2. Analyze the problem
- TBP. Step3. Set a goal
- TBP. Step4. Identify the root cause
- TBP. Step5. Develop countermeasures
- TBP. Step6. Implement countermeasures
- TBP. Step7. Assess processes and results
- TBP. Step8. Standardize the effective processes
Using such tools we receive
- A more cohesive focused Тeam involved in the process
Increase the Team responsibility for the product quality
- Never compromise quality
- Improve the quality of the process and product
- Team development
- Prevent problems in the future
- We choose the continuous improvement way
What we should remember
- Engagement of managers in all levels
- We should not find a guilty person, we try to find problems in process
- The product Team should have the opened mind for understanding, adopting and using the QMS tools
- For clear vision using tools for visualization the problem solving process