1. Requirements for Presentations
    1. Why?
      1. problem: overusage of presentation aids
        1. a presentation file that can be understood without the presenter can only fail in an active presentation
      2. experiment: minimal visual aid to present ONE aspect
      3. make a lasting impression!
    2. what is expected?
      1. good presentation
        1. speaker appearance
          1. voice
          2. Sprecherziehung?
          3. free & clear, in own words, loud enough, not too fast
          4. posture
          5. gesture & mimic
          6. attitude
          7. interested?
          8. convincing?
        2. interaction with audience
          1. eye contact
          2. queries
        3. organisation
          1. time limit 20 min: 15 pres + 5 interaction
          2. sequence: intro - outline - content - summary
          3. orientation in sequence for audience
        4. content
          1. not a description of project activities
          2. focus on ONE particular aspect of your project
          3. conditions
          4. goals
          5. media
          6. choice of topic
          7. temporal sequence
          8. didactical comment
          9. pro/con, difficulties
          10. key questions
          11. how does your project increas learners' ICC?
          12. how does it support autonomous language learning?
          13. coherent, comprehensible
          14. interlinked with issues discussed before
          15. high level of reflection
          16. readiness to answer questions
        5. principles
          1. Variation
      2. brilliant presentation
        1. media usage
          1. single visual anchor/representation/analogy
          2. when someone from the audience sees the vis. anchor afterwards, they must be able to recall main info
          3. focus on process/development of your vis. anchor
          4. interact with media
          5. hard with pc (typing, pointing..)
          6. easy with ohp & whiteboard
          7. structure of analogy fits the topic
          8. show/hide ok
          9. minimalistic
          10. reflect on your choice & design
      3. project plan must be finished one week before presentation is due
      4. handout?
  2. Tutorial
    1. motivation: voluntary, but grade based on fulfilment of requirements
    2. other sessions:
      1. fixed time & place -- for everybody
      2. individual tut: flexible in date & time
      3. content:
        1. pres - ideas
        2. evaluating ideas
        3. you need to know WHAT before thinking about WHEN
      4. only after easter holidays (beginning of may?)
      5. (( first pres 16.5. --- IMPORTANT ))
    3. 1st
      1. organisational
        1. Thu 14. 4.DS = 1 - 2:30 pm
        2. @ MSZ
        3. how many? LTLT=5, XYX=? + introduction course!
      2. goal
        1. theoretical background
          1. why visualize?
          2. because we speak & think visually
          3. > visuallisation aids comprehension & reproduction rate
          4. sensitize to potential of visualization
          5. awareness of connection: learning <-> vis. representation
          6. finding/matching examples
        2. how to visualize?
          1. ideas how to visualise
          2. strategies of representation
          3. icons
          4. media-specific
          5. technical aid
        3. FEEDBACK
          1. giving
          2. receiving
      3. methodology
        1. explain th.background in 2 ways
          1. visually& cognitively INeffective
          2. visually effective
        2. use this map to present
        3. use film as a source of techniques
      4. participants
        1. maria
        2. oliver
        3. maud
        4. franziska
      5. plan
        1. prep
          1. technik?
          2. aushang!
          3. Unterpunkt 3
        2. Intro
          1. 13:00
          2. socialize!
          3. Who are you?
          4. where do you come from?
          5. where in dresden do you live?
          6. scale: semester
          7. scale: how many semesters will you need?
          8. scale: evaluate own pres-skills
          9. yes/no: who got my email?
          10. What did you do so far, any experience in visualisation?
          11. your expectations?
          12. deal with feedback too?
          13. good presentations
          14. tools & techniques
          15. ideas
          16. prezi.com
        3. Intro vis
          1. what's visualisation?
          2. 13:20
        4. film analysis
          1. --end
      6. evaluation
    4. 2nd
      1. organisational
        1. next session?
        2. new participants - expectations?
        3. how are your presentations developing? -> plan who & when!
      2. cognitive/psychological background
        1. show that we speak visually???
      3. viz-ideas
        1. general
          1. periodic table
        2. media specific
          1. OHP
          2. prezi
      4. think
        1. prezi is not main goal!
        2. learn to visualise without electronic aid
        3. link to last session!
          1. practice to find visual metaphors!
      5. how to visualise a project
        1. visual metaphor:
          1. (abstract) source domain --> (concrete, visual) target domain
          2. learning is travelling
          3. learning English is a long way with ups and downs, but it's worth it!
          4. learning is building a house (constructivism)
          5. we cannot transfer knowledge -- all we can do is provide a scaffolding for the learners to build up knowledge themselves
        2. realising a project is travelling through landscape
        3. realising a project is building a house
        4. more: periodic table
      6. task: vis projects!
        1. choose a project topic
          1. your own presentation
          2. or choose a project plan from FTE
          3. or go to http://ellt2010-11.wikispaces.com/
        2. get to the heart of it
          1. what's your focus?
          2. what's the most interesting part of your project idea?
          3. how do you increase learner autonomy & ICC?
          4. why do you consider your method effective?
        3. make it visible
          1. find visual metaphors for your main idea
          2. think of your everyday life
          3. think about products in the supermarket
        4. present to partner & check effectiveness
          1. could you use icons/logos?
          2. too much text?
    5. 3rd
      1. organisational
        1. how are your presentations developing? -> plan who & when, individual sessions!
        2. next session?
      2. why dont people practice before?
        1. not authentic
        2. feel like experts already
        3. effort
        4. benefits not clear
      3. warm-up: advertiser applies for teaching job
      4. task
        1. choose a topic
          1. from text books, curriculum
          2. own
          3. history of migration in the USA
          4. past perfect / simple past - what's the difference?
        2. identify associated teaching goals
          1. lehrplan?
        3. evaluate existing visualisations
          1. describe
          2. structure
          3. hierachical
          4. collection
          5. network
          6. direction of reading
          7. purpose?
          8. effectiveness?
        4. develop own ideas how to support the topic visually & reflect on effectiveness
        5. think about concrete realisations: context? media? potentials/problems?
          1. context: teacher/learner centered?
        6. analysis of visual support
          1. Example 1
          2. Characters in Romeo & Juliet
          3. understanding relationships & conflicts of the characters
          4. paths of relation, clusters = families
          5. doodle
          6. best if students develop their own chart (constructivism)
          7. use computer or other flexible realisation (understanding relationships is a process!)
    6. 4th
      1. warm-up "Schmiegenraten"
      2. task from last week, but media-specific!
  3. What is visualisation?
    1. make visible the invisible
      1. turn nonvisual/abstract data/relations into visually perceivable/comprehensible format/representation
    2. nonvisual information =
      1. thoughts
        1. abstract concepts
          1. "justice"
          2. "friendship"
          3. "truth"
        2. relations btw concepts
        3. abstract reasoning
          1. "humans are mammals, all mammals give birth, therefore all humans give birth"
      2. signsystems
        1. alphabet
          1. e.g. Text = connection of concepts
        2. numbers, other data
          1. e.g. spreadsheet
      3. actions, processes
      4. emotions
      5. but its hard to communicate
        1. abstract concepts -- via metaphor
          1. equality?
          2. scales
        2. cognitive effort (signsystem -> meaning)
        3. intercultural communication
          1. e.g. pioneer plaque
  4. Why visualise?
    1. cognitive linguistics
      1. because we understand all concepts visually:
        1. evidence: speaking visually!
          1. metaphor is a mode of thought
          2. abstract reasoning is a special form of spacial reasoning (Chafe?)
          3. metaphor:
          4. (abstract) source domain --> (concrete) target domain
          5. image metaphors / poetic ~
          6. you're a candle in the wind
          7. conceptual metaphors
          8. Argument is War
          9. set up positions, attack, defend, retreat, win/lose the argument
          10. Life is a Journey
          11. I'm at a crossroad in my life
          12. He took the wrong way
          13. she met interesting people along her path
          14. Death is Departure
          15. From the Monty Python Dead Parrot-sketch: "This parrot is no more. It has ceased to be. It’s expired and gone to meet its maker. This is a late parrot. It’s a stiff. Bereft of life, it rests in peace. If you hadn’t nailed it to the perch, it would be pushing up the daisies. It’s rung down the curtain and joined the choir invisible. This is an ex-parrot." -> Outline the mappings that appear in the text with reference to the DEATH IS DEPARTURE metaphor. Are there any other conventional metaphors apparent in this text? -> Discuss Lakoff’s claim that metaphors are grounded in experience and as such not culture-specific with reference to examples from the text.
          16. image schemes
          17. up-down
          18. Good is Up, Bad is Down
          19. high quality, high moral values, high expectations, high life high technology, higher education, higher forms of life
          20. Power is Up, Powerlessness is Down
          21. high society, high class, high status, high command, high priest, high position in a company.
          22. front-back
          23. Future is front, Past is Back
          24. looking forward to meeting you
          25. he left Jane behind and turned to Christina
      2. involved/detached
        1. because a text is detached (can stand for itself in time & space)
          1. the more text, the less you need the author/a presenter.
        2. more involved = easier to remember
          1. in a live presentation, you are fixed in time & space,
          2. use this context!
          3. use personal stories/narratives
    2. psychology
      1. visual thinking / representation of knowledge?
        1. Arnheim1969
      2. visuell-räumlicher notitzblock
      3. analogy
        1. power of analogy
        2. Analogiebildung
          1. Wissenstransfer: Anwendung von bekanntem Wissen auf Neues
          2. Möglichkeit, aus bekanntem Wissen Hypothesen aufzustellen
          3. ~= Modelle = Vereinfachungen
          4. != Metapher
          5. metaphor replaces source with target (hidden comparison), analogy openly compares the two
          6. schwer zu finden -> vorgeben
          7. über Oberbegriff verwandte Systeme finden
          8. Zufall nutzen (Warenhaus, Wörterbuch blättern)
          9. ACHTUNG kann zu falschen Schlüssen führen
          10. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Analogie prüfen
          11. emotionales Verständnis
          12. Quellkonzepte sind emotional besetzt
          13. -> besseres behalten
          14. BSP Gewehrkugel = gefährlich
          15. Einsatz
          16. Lernen durch Visualisierung & Organisation
          17. BSP Moleküle & Atome = Kuchen & Krümel & kleine Teile von Butter etc.
          18. Verständnis/Problemlösen
          19. komplizierte Bewegungsabläufe
          20. fördert innovation
          21. heutzutage ist so vieles erforscht, das neues eher dadurch entsteht, etwas bekanntes in einen neuen Zusammenhang zu stellen
        3. finding analogies
          1. tips for sources
          2. human body & experience
          3. easy technical concepts
          4. find inspiration
          5. shops,
          6. magazines
          7. practice
      4. visualise the known to help assimilate the unknown
        1. seek inner balance: accomodation & assimilation
      5. visualisation as elaboration
        1. loci-method
        2. bedeutungsarmes material individualisieren
          1. individualität & behaltensleistung: bilder > worte > zahlen
      6. visualisation as reduction
        1. grouping
      7. visualisation enables parallel processing
        1. see the great picture
        2. synthesis
        3. (audio only linear)
      8. organisation of knowledge vital for recalling information
      9. holistic learning: both left & right part of the brain
      10. visualisation & behaviourism
        1. conditioning visual stimulus: use specific symbols as triggers for student reactions
        2. ONE visual anchor will trigger main points of your presentation in your audience !
      11. visualisation & constructivism
      12. multiple kodierung
        1. besser speichern/abrufen wenn über versch. sinneskanäle
        2. verbal
        3. visual
        4. motoric (sp?)
      13. how is knowledge organised? (Lernen mit Bildmedien, Weidenmann p 26)
    3. information theory
      1. because seeing is more than perception -- it's active perception (decoding of signs), you interpret what you see on the basis of preexisting knowledge
        1. "The eye sees only what the mind is prepared to comprehend.” Henri Bergson
        2. utilise your audiences' preexisting knowledge to make your point!
      2. language & visual communication = sign systems
      3. sender (encode) channel/medium (decode) receiver
  5. How can we visualise?
    1. main
      1. ++effectiveness++
        1. condense to its basic structure
          1. common!
          2. prototypical!
          3. stereotypes!
          4. be consistent
        2. make it individual!
          1. organic
          2. colours
          3. context
          4. but not uncommon!
        3. involve emotion
          1. funny/weird
        4. involve many senses
        5. be active, interact!
          1. point at
          2. focus on
          3. temporarily underline
          4. uncover
          5. hide
      2. goal
        1. support comprehension & memorization during presentation
      3. media types
        1. blackboard / flipchart
        2. ohp
        3. pc
      4. What is visualised?
        1. PROCESS
          1. scripts
          2. real pictures (fotos)
        2. CONCEPT/STRUCTURE
          1. schemas
          2. real pictures (fotos)
        3. DATA
      5. function
        1. visualisation as a substitute for reality
        2. make visible the invisible
          1. learn about the invisible
          2. Lerngegenstand
          3. Bildermacher: entwickelt Vorstellung von Lerngegenstand
          4. Bildermacher visualisiert
          5. Mediales Angebot
          6. Lerner: Interpretation des medialen Angebots
          7. Lerner entwickelt Vorstellung von Lerngegenstand
        3. express personal experience/emotion
        4. for evaluation of learning success
      6. How? types of visualisation
        1. icons/signs
          1. smalles graphical meaning-bearing unit
        2. metaphorical
          1. e.g. computer interfaces!
        3. structural
        4. illustration
        5. prototypical (real) image
      7. organisational principles
        1. linear order
          1. timeline |----------->
          2. sequence of events, actions
          3. contunuum <---> (one dimension)
        2. networks
          1. = natural representation of knowledge
          2. e.g.
          3. metro plan
          4. mindmapping tools
        3. spatial relation
          1. closeness & distance
          2. ZUI & prezi.com
          3. coordinates (two dimensions)
          4. up& down (gravitational field)
          5. building a house
          6. heaven & hell
          7. iceberg model
          8. funnel
          9. mimicking geographical map & walking trail
        4. part-whole
          1. parts of a car resemble keywords
        5. picture with details representing keywords
      8. common visual metaphors
        1. scales
        2. ladder
        3. funnel
        4. wheel/spiral
    2. example: "changing the paradigm"
      1. task
        1. 1
          1. Watch the video again and find as many visualisation techniques as possible! What is visualised & how? What makes the visualisation effective? Criticism?
        2. 2
          1. compare with your neighbor and try to categorize visualisation techniques
        3. 3
          1. share your findings in class, we develop common categorisation
          2. anything from other 2 films?
          3. film2: learning concept map (keywords)
          4. film3: hässliche folien, ich erkläre ihnen was zu sehen ist
        4. 4
          1. watch again & identify everything
      2. categories
        1. signs/symbols (simple)
          1. common!
          2. stereotypes!
        2. elaborate symbolization
          1. maps
          2. graphs / scales
          3. speech/thought bubbles
          4. "real" pictures
          5. mimic/gesture
          6. timeline
        3. metaphor
          1. education = production process
      3. my findings
        1. ZUI
          1. zoom in & out
          2. relation between ideas!
          3. prezi.com
          4. too much, too quick, no "big picture" zooms
          5. animation
        2. effectiveness
          1. too fast
          2. no time for reflection
          3. brainwashing
          4. red thread/connection
          5. arrows
          6. self-reference
          7. red thread = DNA
          8. too much text
          9. colour
          10. interaction
          11. cross out, shining
          12. erase & add
          13. contextualisation,
          14. characters
          15. emotion
        3. metaphors
          1. cloud -> invisibility = uncertainty
          2. front = future / back = past
          3. back = lack of attention
          4. chained to sth = submissive
          5. up/down for standards
          6. clouds/rays = thoughts
          7. make thoughts visible: speech bubbles
          8. DNA sequence = progress
          9. sleep/wake up = activity, autonomy
          10. stairs up & down = social class
          11. pub edu = majestic building with columns
          12. up-down = quantity (ADHD & testing)
          13. School = Factory
          14. covered glass containter = trap
        4. symbols
          1. pound = economy
          2. cultural
          3. symbols of profession
          4. graduate hat
          5. historical
          6. religion
          7. economy
          8. yardstick for measuring/standardisation
          9. einstein = genius
        5. image schemas
          1. front/back
          2. linear order
          3. up/down
          4. connection
        6. spacial relation, geometric objects
          1. class triangle
          2. geographical maps
          3. opposite direction (not standardisation but divergence)
          4. graph
  6. Resources
    1. Medienzentrum
    2. Tud - visual communication
    3. lernen zu lernen
      1. metzig schuster
      2. CX 3000 M596(7)
    4. data presentation & visual literacy.. XB1900 S592
    5. visual literacy.org
    6. get experts!
      1. regular teachers
      2. uni-spü: Reiter, Weiss, ...
    7. leni dam: from theory to classroom practice