W301 UNITS 18-20: LEASES

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W301 UNITS 18-20: LEASES

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W301 UNITS 18-20: LEASES
1 Types
1.1 Fixed term tenancy
1.1.1 eg 99 years
1.2 Periodic tenancy
1.2.1 eg weekly, yearly
1.3 Tenancy at will
1.3.1 With permission, for as long as it suits both parties
1.3.2 Paying no rent
1.3.3 Can be terminated at any time
1.3.4 Ends on death
1.3.5 Wheeler v Mercer [1957]
1.3.6 Errington v Errington [1952]
1.4 Tenancy by estoppel
1.4.1 Lessor does not own legal estate
1.4.2 Cannot grant legal lease If gains legal estate, will be corrected Feeding the estoppel
1.4.3 But estopped from denying lease
1.4.4 Industrial Properties (Barton Hill) Ltd v AEI Ltd [1977]
1.4.5 Would not bind third party
1.5 Tenancy at sufferance
1.5.1 Continues occupation after tenancy ends
1.5.2 Lessor does not agree or object
1.5.3 Wheeler v Mercer [1957]
1.6 Equitable lease
1.6.1 Has a contract for a lease Estate contract
1.6.2 Could sue for specific performance
1.6.3 Is 'as good as' a lease If protected by registration
1.6.4 Walsh v Lonsdale (1882)
1.7 Bruton tenancies
1.7.1 Bruton v London and Quadrant Housing Trust [2000] Bruton had exclusive possession and therefore a tenancy Even though landlord had only a licence Character of the landlord was irrelevant Tenancy existed purely as a contract without creating proprietary right
1.7.2 Kay v London Borough of Lambeth [2006] Lambeth terminated LQHT lease Bruton tenancies did not survive the ending of the lease
2 Requirements
2.1 Exclusive possession
2.2 Rent
2.2.1 Not essential Ashburn Anstalt v Arnold [1989]
2.3 Certainty of term
2.3.1 Date of commencement and duration must be known from the start
2.3.2 Lace v Chantler [1944] Tenancy for the duration of the war was void Could have been granted for fixed term, subject to termination at end of war
2.3.3 Prudential Assurance v London Residuary Body [1992] Yearly tenancy was void Landlord restricted from giving notice until land needed for road widening
3 Express covenants
3.1 eg restrictions on use
3.2 eg insurance
3.3 eg repair and decoration
4 Implied covenants
4.1 Quiet enjoyment
4.1.1 To protect tenant from interference by landlord
4.1.2 Threats may breach Kenny v Preen [1963]
4.1.3 Use or threaten violence to gain entry s6 Criminal Law Act 1977
4.1.4 Unlawfully deprives of occupation s1(2) Protection from Eviction Act 1977
4.1.5 Acts which interfere with peace and comfort done to cause her to give up occupation s1(3) Protection from Eviction Act 1977
4.1.6 If forced out of flat Damages s27 Housing Act 1988
4.1.7 Does not apply to Noise from neighbours Things done before grant of tenancy
4.2 Repair
4.2.1 Common law Caveat lessee No law against letting a tumble down house Cavalier v Pope [1906] Furnished tenancies must be fit for human habitation Smith v Marrable (1843) only at date of letting Sarson v Roberts [1895] No similar term for unfurnished Hart v Windsor (1843) Courts will sometimes imply terms Liverpool CC v Irwin [1976] Landlord liable for maintenance of common areas Only when necessary Duke of Westminster v Guild [1985] Tenant had easement to use drain Did not imply obligation to repair Barrett v Lounova (1982) Tenant obligated to repair Could not carry out unless landlord repaired Court implied term Did not lay down general principle Adami v Lincoln Grange Management ltd
4.2.2 Statute Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 s8 Letting of house for human habitation Must be fit for purpose throughout tenancy Only applies if rent not more than £52 a year (£80 in London) Rent could include capital sum paid s11 Obligation to repair structure and exterior of dwelling house Repair water gas and electric installations Also sanitation and heating Only if lease is for a term of less than seven years Tenant cannot be made responsible for items in this section Landlord not liable unless aware O'Brien v Robinson [1973] Defective Premises Act 1972 If landlord has right to enter for purpose of repairs Has obligation to repair defect if is aware or ought to be aware Has to protect tenant from personal injury or damage to her property
4.2.3 Tenants obligations Not responsible for anything covered by s11 if less than seven years Must do little jobs a reasonable tenant would do Warren v Keen [1954]
5 Termination
5.1 Expiry by effluxion of time
5.1.1 Ends automatically without notice
5.2 Notice to quit
5.2.1 Periodic tenancies
5.2.2 Both parties may give notice
5.2.3 Generally same length as tenancy
5.2.4 Except yearly Six months notice
5.2.5 Minimum four weeks written notice for dwelling house s5 Protection from Eviction Act 1977
5.2.6 Should expire at end of completed period of tenancy
5.2.7 Notice by one joint tenant will terminate tenancy Hammersmith and Fulham LBC v Monk [1992] note contractual approach taken
5.3 Security of tenure
5.3.1 Statutory protection Rent Act 1977 Housing Act 1988 Housing Act 1985 local authority landlords Agricultural Holdings Act 1986 agricultural holdings Landlord and Tenant Act 1954 commercial premises
5.4 Surrender
5.4.1 Express surrender by deed With landlord's agreement
5.4.2 Implied surrender i.e moves out and landlord relets
5.5 Merger
5.5.1 Tenant acquires landlord's interest
5.5.2 i.e. buys freehold
5.6 Frustration and repudiation
5.6.1 Contractual doctrines Unclear if apply
5.6.2 Trend towards contractual view of leases
5.6.3 Frustration - destroys whole base of contract
5.6.4 Repudiatory breach - sufficiently serious to allow otther party to withdraw

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