1. Your Latex
    1. Editing Cycle
      1. A text editor is used to create a source file
      2. “Typesets” the source file and views the result on the monitor
      3. Making changes and observing the results of these changes
      4. Print the file and mostly creates a PDF file of the typeset version
    2. Three productivity tools
      1. Synchronization
        1. move quickly between the source file and the typeset file
      2. Block comment
        1. comment or uncomment a block of text at one time
      3. Jump to a line
        1. jump to a line specified in the source file by the line number
  2. Typing text
    1. A source file
      1. text
      2. math (formulas)
      3. instructions (commands) to LaTeX
        1. command with an argument
        2. command without an argument
        3. environment.
          1. content: the text that is typed between two environment commands
      4. start with a backslash ( \ )
    2. The keyboard
      1. used to type text
        1. a-z A-Z 0-9 + = * / ( ) [ ]
      2. punctuation marks can be used
        1. , ; . ? ! : ` ' -
        2. the space bar, the Tab key, and the Return (or Enter) key
      3. special keys used in LaTeX commands
        1. # $ % & ~ _ ^ \ { } @ " |
          1. Only @ requires no special command
          2. Others need to insert a backslash ( \ ) before
    3. Your first note
      1. comments
        1. everything on the line after % is ignored
      2. document class
        1. control how the document is formatted
      3. environment
        1. \begin{document} and \end{document}
      4. text
        1. typed within the document environment
    4. Lines too wide
      1. LaTeX uses points (pt) to measure distances
      2. hyphenate a hyphenated word only at the hyphen
      3. LaTeX’s standard hyphenation routine cannot handle German hyphenation and so on
    5. More text features
      1. display the date on which the document is typeset
        1. \today
      2. environments to justify text
        1. \begin{flushright} ... \end{flushright}
        2. \begin{center} ... \end{center}
        3. \begin{flushleft} ... \end{flushleft}
      3. text style
        1. \emph
          1. emphasize text
        2. \textbf
          1. bold text
        3. \texttt
          1. typewriter style text
      4. form of the LaTeX commands
        1. backslash( \ )
        2. command name
          1. terminated by the first nonalphabetic character
          2. case sensitive
        3. arguments (if have)
          1. takes the next character as argument if braces non-exist
      5. multiple role of hyphens
        1. Double hyphens are used for number ranges
          1. 89--64 as 89-64
        2. triple hyphens for the em dash punctuation mark
          1. --- as —
      6. new line command
        1. \\ (or \newline):
        2. create additional space between lines
          1. \\[distance]
          2. square brackets means optional
          3. distance may be given in points (pt), centimeters (cm), or inches (in)
      7. new page command
        1. \newpage
      8. Special rules for special characters
        1. accented characters and some European characters
          1. e.g. \"{a}
  3. Typing math
    1. math environments
      1. inline
        1. open and close with $
      2. displayed
        1. open with \[ and close with \]
    2. spacing rules
      1. ignore space with two exceptions
      2. spaces terminate commands
      3. Spaces in the arguments of certain commands
        1. e.g. /text
    3. formula
      1. Arithmetic
        1. \cdot or \times
          1. . or x in ab as a.b or a x b
        2. \frac
          1. for fractions and seldom used inline
        3. (underscore)_ and (caret)^
          1. subscript and superscript
          2. should be enclosed in braces or take the first one as argument
        4. (prime)'
          1. automatically superscripted in math
      2. Binomial coefficients
        1. \binom{}{}
      3. Congruences
        1. a \equiv v \pmod{\theta}
          1. Topic
        2. a \equiv v \pod{\theta}
          1. Topic
      4. Delimiters
        1. \left and \right
          1. resize the parentheses according to the symbols inside
        2. \quad
          1. a spacing command
      5. Ellipses
        1. \dots
          1. ellipsis ( . . . ) in text
      6. Integrals
        1. \int
          1. an integral
          2. The lower limit is specified as a subscript
          3. the upper limit is specified as a superscript
        2. \,
          1. a spacing command
      7. Math accents
        1. \bar{a}
        2. \hat{a}
        3. \tilde{a}
        4. \vec{a}
      8. Matrices
        1. \begin{matrix} ... \end{matrix}
          1. matrix environment
          2. has to appear within a math environment
          3. As a rule, it's in a displayed math environment
          4. does not provide delimiters
        2. &
          1. separate matrix elements within a row
        3. \\
          1. separate rows
          2. Do not end the last row with a new line command
        4. \begin{pmatrix} ... \end{pmatrix} \begin{vmatrix} ... \end{vmatrix}
          1. provide delimiters as \left( ... \right) \left| ... \right|
      9. Operators
        1. \sin
        2. \lim_{x \to 0} f(x) = 0
        3. Large operators
          1. \sum
          2. for sum
          3. \sum_{i=1}^{n} x_{i}^{2}
          4. \prod
          5. for product
          6. \prod_{i=1}^{n} x_{i}^{2}
      10. Roots
        1. \sqrt
          1. \sqrt{a + 2b}
          2. \sqrt[n]{5}
      11. Text
        1. \text
    4. Displayed formulas
      1. Equations
        1. \begin{equation} ... \end{equation}
        2. the equation number is automatically generated
        3. use symbolic label to refer to the equation
          1. the argument of the \label command
          2. used the convention that the label of an equation starts with E:
          3. referenced
          4. \ref
          5. the number of the formula
          6. \eqref
          7. provide the reference number in parentheses
          8. \pageref
          9. the page of the formula
          10. ~
          11. nonbreakable space
          12. ensure the equation number on the same line
        4. symbolic referencing
          1. symbol
          2. the argument of the \label command
          3. can be referenced with \ref, \eqref, or \pageref commands
          4. same mechanism for all of the generated numbering systems
          5. sections, subsections, subsubsections, equations, theorems, lemmas, and bibliographic references
          6. except that for bibliographic references
          7. \bibitem
          8. define a bibliographic item and
          9. \cite
          10. cite a bibliographic item
        5. tagged
          1. \tag
          2. The tag replaces the equation number
          3. Tags are absolute while numbers relative
          4. \notag
          5. prevent the numbering
          6. useful in a fromula more than one line
      2. Aligned formulas
        1. \begin{align} ... \end{align}
          1. Simple alignments
          2. \\
          3. line separator
          4. should not have one to terminate the last line
          5. &
          6. alignment point
          7. place it before where you want to be aligned
          8. Annotated alignment
          9. &&
          10. a mark for the start of the annotation
          11. align* environment
          12. no line be numbered
        2. cases
          1. within a math environment such as equation or align environment
          2. \begin{cases} ... \end{cases}
          3. you can put inline math inside the argument of a \text command
          4. \\
          5. Separate the lines
          6. &
          7. indicate the annotation
  4. first article
    1. The anatomy of an article
      1. preamble
        1. everything from the first line to the line \begin{document}
        2. specify additional commands that are used throughout the document
        3. specifies the document class and enhancements or packages
        4. \documentclass
          1. The only required command
        5. \usepackage{}
        6. \newtheorem{}{}
      2. body.
        1. the content of the document environment
        2. between the lines \begin{document} and \end{document}
        3. top matter
          1. title page information and the abstract
          2. follows the line \begin{document} and concludes with the line \maketitle
        4. main matter
          1. \section{}
          2. \begin{theorem} ... \end{theorem}
          3. \begin{figure}[hbt] \centering\includegraphics{} \caption{} \end{figure}
          4. \begin{proof} ... \end{proof}
        5. back matter
          1. \begin{thebibliography}{n} \bibitem{maker} content bibitem{}... \end{thebibliography}
          2. n tell LaTeX to make room for number 9 for references fewer than 10 99 for references between 10 and 99 and so on
          3. reference with the \cite{marker} command
    2. An article template
      1. Top matter
        1. \thanks
          1. places an unmarked footnote at the bottom of the first page
        2. \author
          1. multiple authors get separate \author and \address commands
        3. \address
          1. Separate the lines with \\
          2. Do not put a \\ at the end of the last line
        4. \date
          1. \date{\today} typesets today’s date
          2. \date{March 14, 2009}
        5. \title
          1. the only required command
          2. break the title into separate lines with \\ Do not put a \\ at the end of the last line
        6. \maketitle
          1. if you do not give the \maketitle command, even the \title command is optional On the other hands, if there exists \maketitle and no \title, there comes an error
      2. Sectioning
        1. \section{Content}\label{mark} ... \ref{mark}
        2. section number is automatically assigned
        3. \section* produces an unnumbered section
        4. \subsection \subsubsection \subsection* \subsubsection*
      3. proclamations
        1. defined in the preamble with \newtheorem
        2. theorem number is automatically assigned
        3. \begin{theorem}\label{mark} Content \end{theorem} ...ref{mark}
      4. references
        1. Examples
          1. an article in a journal
          2. \bibitem{sF90} Soo-Key Foo, \emph{Lattice Constructions}, Ph.D. thesis, University of Winnebago, Winnebago, MN, December, 1990.
          3. a book
          4. \bibitem{gM68} George~A. Menuhin, \emph{Universal algebra}. D.~Van Nostrand, Princeton, 1968. \bibitem{
          5. a Ph.D. thesis
          6. \bibitem{eM57} Ernest~T. Moynahan, \emph{On a problem of M. Stone}, Acta Math. Acad. Sci. Hungar. \textbf{8} (1957), 455--460.
          7. a technical report
          8. \bibitem{eM57a} Ernest~T. Moynahan, \emph{Ideals and congruence relations in lattices.} II, Magyar Tud. Akad. Mat. Fiz. Oszt. K\"{o}zl. \textbf{9} (1957), 417--434.
        2. You have to arrange the references in thebibliography environment to see them LATEX only takes care of the numbering and the citations in the text
    3. On using LaTeX
      1. error messages
        1. Typographical errors
        2. errors in mathematical formulas or in the formatting of the text
        3. errors in your instructions to LaTeX
        4. Tip Typeset often
      2. Logical and visual design
        1. you should concentrate on what you say let LaTeX take care of the visual design