1. 1 Initial
    1. testing
      1. is a chaotic, undefined process and is often considered a part of debugging
        1. ad hoc way after coding is completed
      2. success
        1. depends on the competence and heroics of the people
      3. lack
        1. of resources, tools and well-educated staff
      4. product
        1. does not fulfil its needs
        2. is not stable
        3. is too slow
        4. not to be released on time
        5. budgets are overrun
        6. delivered quality is not according to expectations
    2. Goal
      1. is to show that the software runs without major failures
    3. Maturity
      1. tendency to over commit, abandonment of processes in a time of crises, and an inability to repeat their successes
    4. The process areas
      1. NO
  2. 2 Managed
    1. testing
      1. a managed process and is clearly separated from debugging
      2. being a project phase that follows coding
      3. multi-level
        1. component
        2. integration
        3. system
        4. acceptance
        5. testing objectives defined
      4. and debugging are differentiated
    2. Goal
      1. is to verify that the product satisfies the specified requirements
    3. The process areas
      1. Test Policy and Strategy
        1. is established
      2. Test Planning
        1. are also developed
          1. a test approach is defined
          2. is based on the result of a product risk assessment
          3. Risk management techniques are used to identify the product risks based on documented requirements
        2. what testing is required, when, how and by whom
      3. Test Monitoring and Control
        1. to ensure it is going according to plan
        2. actions can be taken if deviations occur
        3. visible to management
      4. Test Design and Execution
        1. test design techniques
      5. Test Environment
  3. 3 Defined
    1. testing
      1. is fully integrated into the development
      2. test planning is done at an early project stage (during the requirements)
        1. master test plan
      3. is established and improved over time
      4. test organization and a specific test training program exist
        1. as part of the test organization’s accepted practices
        2. understand the importance of reviews in quality control
      5. perceived as being a profession
      6. dynamic testing process
        1. reviews
          1. test professionals are involved in reviews of requirements specifications
      7. nonfunctional testing
    2. The process areas
      1. Test Organization
      2. Test Training Program
      3. Test Lifecycle and Integration
      4. Non-functional Testing
      5. Peer Reviews
  4. 4 Measured
    1. testing
      1. is a thoroughly defined, well-founded and measurable process
      2. is perceived as evaluation
      3. it consists of all lifecycle activities concerned with checking products and related work products
      4. Peer reviews are now fully integrated with the dynamic testing process
      5. Product
        1. is evaluated using quantitative criteria for quality attributes.
          1. reliability
          2. usability
          3. maintainability
        2. product quality measurement technique
      6. to measure product quality early
        1. Reviews and inspection as a part of the test process
    2. Goal
      1. to evaluate the quality of the testing process
        1. to support fact-based decision making.
        2. define quality needs, quality attributes and quality metrics
    3. The process areas
      1. Test Measurement
      2. Product Quality Evaluation
      3. Advanced Reviews
  5. 5 Optimization
    1. testing
      1. continually improving its processes based on a quantitative understanding of statistically controlled processes
        1. incremental and innovative process and technological improvements
    2. test process
      1. managed, defined, measured, efficient and effective
      2. statistically controlled and predictable
      3. focused on defect prevention
      4. supported by automation as much is deemed an effective use of resources
      5. able to support technology transfer from the industry to the organization
      6. able to support re-use of test assets
      7. focused on process change to achieve continuous improvement
    3. The process areas
      1. Defect Prevention
        1. to prevent similar defects from occurring in the future
      2. Quality Control
      3. Test Process Optimization
      4. continuous process improvement
  6. and link
    1. https://www.tmmi.org/tmmi-model/