1. Introduction: Authority and Its Discontents
    1. Autonomous behavior vs. Controlled behavior
    2. 2 types of controlled behaviour
      1. Compliance
      2. Defiance
    3. Self-motivation vs. External motivation
    4. Goals of the Book
      1. Examine the relation between autonomy and responsibility
      2. Reflect on the issue of promoting responsibility in an alienating world
    5. Method of the Book
      1. Scientific, empiric approach
      2. Focusing on motivational processes
  2. I'm Only in It for the Money
    1. Behaviorist dogma
      1. Deliver a reward for a specific, identifiable behavior and do so as soon after the behavior as possible; focus on rewards rather than punishments; and be consistent in delivering the rewards.
      2. People are fundamentally passive and will respond only when the environment tempts them with the opportunity to get rewards or avoid punishments.
      3. It assumes that there is no inherent motivation to learn.
    2. Child's innate curiosity as a counter argument to Behaviorist dogma
    3. Intrinsic motivation
      1. Refers to the process of doing an activity for its own sake, of doing an activity for the reward that is inherent in the activity itself.
      2. Being intrinsically motivates has to do with being wholly involved in the activity itself and not with reaching a goal.
    4. Experiments on extrinsic rewards and negative effects of money rewards
      1. Undermined subjects' feelings of personal causation
      2. Turned play into work, and the player into a pawn
      3. People lose interest in activities
      4. People lose contact with their inner selves
  3. The Need for Personal Autonomy
    1. Intrinsic need to feel a sense of personal autonomy or self-determination
    2. Autonomy support increases intrinsic motivation
      1. Giving people choices about how to behave.
      2. When you provide people choice, it leaves them feeling as if you are responsive to them as individuals.
    3. What decreases intrinsic motivation
      1. Threat
      2. Deadlines
      3. Imposed goals
      4. Surveillance
      5. Critical evaluations
      6. Competition
      7. Rewards (given with intention to control)
      8. Any occurrence that undermines feeling of autonomy decreases intrinsic motivation.
    4. Limit setting is still important for promoting responsibility
  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
    1. Instrumental reason
      1. Modern society evaluates everything in terms of its bottom-line yield, the cost-ratio benefit.
    2. Extrinsic control all too often gets people focused only on the outcomes
      1. This leads to shortcuts that may be sad
      2. Worse learning
      3. Undermines intrinsic motivation
      4. Has detrimental effects on performance of any tasks that require creativity, conceptual understanding, or flexible problem solving.
    3. Do people when they are intrinsically motivated also achieve great outcomes?
      1. Better results in learning
      2. Intrinsic motivation is associated with richer experience, better conceptual understanding, greater creativity, and improved problem solving, relative to external controls.
    4. Pragmatic problems with relying on rewards and controls to motivate people
      1. You cannot easily go back
      2. People will all too likely take the shortest or quickest path
  5. Engaging the World with a Sense of Competence
    1. Meaningful contingencies, or behavior-outcome linkages - fundamental element necessary for motivation
      1. Without appropriate instrumentalities, there will not be productive, motivated behavior (but they are also the means for controlling behavior)
      2. There must be clarity about what behaviors are expected, and what outcomes will result from those instrumental behaviors
      3. People must also feel competent at instrumental behaviors
    2. The need for Competency
      1. Feeling competent is important both for extrinsic motivation and for intrinsic motivation
      2. Competence is a second psychological need - beyond autonomy - that underlies intrinsically motivated behavior
      3. Optimal challenge
      4. Gaining competence is not enough though
    3. Giving feedback
      1. Controlling praise decreases intrinsic motivation
      2. Negative feedback is disastrous
        1. Start by asking what the other's thoughts about what happened
        2. People can typically be accurate in evaluating their own performance
  6. When Society Corrupts
    1. The American Dream as a motivating force
      1. Emphasis on materialism
    2. Extrinsic and intrinsic life aspirations
      1. Being wealthy
      2. Being famous
      3. Being physically attractive
      4. Having satisfying, meaningful personal relationships
      5. Making contributions to the community
      6. Growing as individuals
      7. Extrinsic
      8. Intrinsic
    3. Intrinsic vs extrinsic aspirations
      1. Intrinsic aspirations are quite different from the extrinsic ones; they are satisfying in their own right.
      2. Having strong aspiration for material success was associated with narcissism, anxiety, depression, and poorer social functioning
      3. Strong aspirations for any of the intrinsic goals were positively associated with well-being
      4. Extrinsic aspirations represent aspects of a false self
      5. In developing an orientation toward external criteria for judging one's worth, people become particularly vulnerable to the forces of society
    4. Individualism vs Autonomy
      1. Individualism is about self-interest, about acting to achieve and acquire for yourself
      2. Individualism is opposite to collectivism
      3. Autonomy is about acting volitionally, with a sense of choice, flexibility, and personal freedom
      4. Autonomy is opposite to being controlled
      5. It's possible to be individualistic without being autonomous
      6. Autonomy requires self-knowledge, so individualism can be autonomous only when accompanied by self-knowledge.
    5. Self-knowledge
      1. Begins with a relaxed attention to one's inner processes
      2. Begins with genuine interest in oneself
      3. Autonomy facilitates and is facilitated by self-knowledge
  7. The Self in a Social World
    1. Loosing touch with a true self
    2. Development of true self requires autonomy support
    3. Introjection facilitates the emergence of false self
    4. Ego involvement
      1. Undermines intrinsic motivation
      2. Impairs learning and creativity
      3. Diminishes performance on any task where flexible thinking and problem solving are required.
    5. "If you dare to be fat, then you can be thin."
    6. 2 types of self-esteem
      1. True self-esteem
      2. Contingent self-esteem
    7. Mutual dependence
  8. When Society Beckons
    1. How to promote a desirable behavior if the behavior is not intrinsically motivated?
      1. Through Internalization
    2. 2 approaches to Internalization
      1. That people are either passive or barbarous
      2. That people are imbued with tendency and energy to grow and develop in accord with their psychological needs
    3. 2 quite different types of Internalization
      1. Introjection
      2. Integration
    4. Possible outcomes of introjection vs integration
      1. Rigid, dutiful compliance
      2. Halfhearted adherence
      3. Outright rebellion
    5. People fail to have internalized values when their basic needs - for autonomy, competence, and relatedness - are not satisfied
    6. Autonomy support is essential for promoting internalization and integration of the motivation for uninteresting, though important, activities
      1. Providing a rationale
      2. Acknowledging feelings
      3. Minimizing pressures
    7. Autonomy support != Permissiveness
  9. The Inner Force of Development
    1. Human development is not something done to the child
    2. People develop through the process of organismic integration
    3. Autonomy support is important for human development
    4. The need for Relatedness
      1. This is the third innate need
      2. Doesn't contradict to Autonomy
      3. Autonomy != Independence
  10. Being Autonomous Amidst the Controls
    1. Individual differences in temperament
    2. Finding a Special Support
    3. Individuals and Their Social World
      1. To some extent, people influence the social world that influences them
      2. People's expectations influence how they interpret a social environment
    4. Individual Differences in Motivation
    5. Promoting One's Own Development
    6. Managing One's Own Experience
    7. Regulating One's Emotions
      1. Giving stimuli less threatening meanings
      2. Ego-involvements make people a pawn to their emotions
    8. Regulating One's Behavior
      1. Allowing oneself to feel emotions and then deciding what to do with them
      2. Emotions are an important messenger
    9. The Use of Techniques
      1. Motivation must come from within, not from techniques
    10. Accepting Oneself
  11. Promoting Healthy Behaviour
    1. The Reasons for Change
      1. Controlling (external or internal) reasons
      2. Autonomous reasons
        1. Personal choice to change
        2. Accepting responsibility for own behavior and health
        3. Taking genuine interest in own motivations
    2. Noncompliance with Medical Regimens
      1. This is a significant problem
      2. Those who did a personal choice are more reliable in following medical prescriptions
    3. Supporting Patient's Autonomy
    4. The Biopsychosocial Approach
      1. Doctor specialization made them focus on organs rather than people
      2. The Biopsychosocial Approach looks at psychological and social factors instead
    5. Responsibility and Autonomy Support
    6. Training Providers to Be Autonomy Supportive
      1. Autonomy-supportive interpersonal style encourages the integration of healthy values
  12. How To Promote Autonomy
    1. Deciding What to Do and How to Do It
      1. It is possible that the decisions will be of higher quality than when manager decides alone
      2. Choice enhances people's intrinsic motivation
      3. There are, however, circumstances where it may be impractical or disadvantageous to offer choices
      4. Being overly controlled in the past people may act as they don't want to have a choice; as if they want to be controlled.
    2. Setting Autonomy-Supportive Limits
      1. It is possible to have people set their own limits
      2. Avoiding controlling language and acknowledging the resistance facilitate people's willingness to accept the limits
      3. Providing the reason for limits
      4. Making the limits as wide as possible and allowing choice within them will help keep people from feeling so restricted
      5. Setting consequences of transgressing limits is an essential element for effective limit settting
    3. Setting Goals and Evaluating Performance
      1. To be most effective, goals need to be individualized and they need to be set so as to represent an optimal challenge
      2. The best way to set goals is to involve the people in the process
      3. People can also participate in evaluating their own performance
    4. Administering Rewards and Recognition
      1. When rewards or awards are used as a means of motivating people, they are likely to backfire
    5. Recognizing the Obstacles
      1. Some people have controlling personalities
      2. Some people don't have skills necessary for practicing autonomy spport
      3. When parents or managers feel more pressured, it's also more difficult for them to be autonomy supportive
  13. Conclusion: The Meaning of Human Freedom
    1. Human Freedom = To be truly autonomous
    2. The true autonomy is accompanied by relatedness
    3. True responsibility requires that people act autonomously