quantify function (movement, time, dimensions ...)
resolution of images
human factor of the "scanner"
different protocols and standards in imaging machines
different machines ...
differences in people and the situation
human error in analysis
quantify the data in images
identify stage of a disease
multi dimensional models
biology/chemistry of interst
find patterns / anamolies
observe metabolic sites in the body
add genomic data to it
combine genomic data with imaging data and create a matric and group the patient(s image)
goal: e.g. better treatment plan (personalized)
Electronics and Instrumentation
biological data and transform it into electronic data
what can be measured
Wearable Biomedical Sensors
outside of the body
tatoo (sweat, heartbeat...)
What sensors are out there?
wifi as communication
needs to be passive, people don't want to spend attention.
bio signal processing
cheap software now available
models to extract relevant measures from noise signal
take noise into account
integration with robots that act on the signals from the subject
use the easier to monitor signals to help other sensors to find the right time to take a signal
Monitoring the Brain Under Anesthesia
Tripolar Centric Ring Electrode for EEG
body sensor networks
networks of wireless sensors
sensors in cloat
micro sensors under the skin
automatic despenser of optimise medication intake for motor desease based on sensor data
Glucose Monitoring Contact Lenses
Bioinformatics reveals dynamic molecular and cellular processes
mapping, visualizing and recognizing patterns in sequences and expression of DNA and proteins
analysis of protein structures
computer modeling of molecular pathways
Genomics - the DNA sequnce of our genes
Transcriptomics - the translation of DNA into RNA
Functional Genomics - the dynamic aspects of gene & protein function & interactions
Proteomics - the structure & and large-scale composition of cell protein
Metabolomics - the chemical processes involoving cell metabolites
Systems Biology - addresses integrated systems of biological components at all levels
System Medicine - Focuses on the human body
integrate all the seperate areas into one system framework
looks at different types of data
Omics , Clinical, Mobile, Sensor & Population Data
Multiscale Spatiotemporal Imaging
then analyses the data and create system model
goal: to find
Drug Discovery & Repositioning
Precision Medicine & Surgery
the quantitative study of physiological systems at more macro levels.
The Physiome Project - repositories of ECG and other signals for both normal and pathological cases.
informatics as applied to almost all other categories of medicine (outside of genomics)
Electronic Medical Records
Different Protocols of the Machines
Why to output the signal
sometimes only one -> display -> use adapter that splits signal and emits it via messaging
large amounts of data
paper records transform to electronic records
epidemiological and clinical trial data
insurance and payment records
film bacteria (in timelaps) and anlyse their growth accross time
automatical stream analytics on vital signs
resting heart rate
correlate gene sequences with feature of humans/objects
includes the area of computational modelling and Physiological Systems Modeling
personalize treatment based on genetic markers of a person
you on a chip
a data base that analysis different types of data, different diseases and existing drugs to find new usages
Accurate Monitoring of vital signs
watchful infrastructure that monitor patients automatically based on models
Advisory for Normal and Sick People based on werables
expert knowledge can made availble more easy
security of transmissoin and data !
mechanics used to augment biological performance
mechanics to model biological systems
The difference is that the mechanics of biological systems are typically far more complex than
advances in mechanics and materials,
cheap and miniature computers for control.
provide assitance to humans
assist in rehabilitation
motion of the body
performance of Olympic athletes
and race horses
gait of patients who have suffered strokes
tremor remove / filtering
focus on cost and accessability (mainframe vs pc)
how do I make this thing light or minimal in every sense:
volume, weight, price?
earlier stage of design essential:
what are the requirement?
what are the constraints (price, material, volume, weight …)?
What kind of maneuvers do they need (MVP Idea!)?
Make sure we have the right engineering tools.
One day, this could even lead to cellular surgery.
provide sensing, imaging, and motion control during surgical operation in order to achieve
BioMEMS / Microtechnology
size of a single cell
put sensor, actuators and other tech into a small space
rockets and satelites
e.g. from gastro to vascular: move 10 millimeter size to maybe 3 or 4, even 2, even 1, and less.
size of proteins and DNA and most complex chemicals.
microelectronic fabrication - build devices at these length scales ( 1 billionth of meter / nanometer)
physics is different on macro and nano level
The effects of momentum and viscosity, for example, influence how and whether fluids mix.
Some of these small-scale behaviors can be exploited for both diagnostic and therapeutic benefit.
3nm - reflected light we see is blue
4nm - reflected light we see is red
5nm - reflected light we see is heat
large surface area to volume
what is so special about nano scale?
cells/biological units interact on nano scale
control (remote or autonomous)
passive, e.g. they rely on peristalsis (movement of the digestive system)
active, e.g small moving robots
e.g actuated by external or internal magnets.
e.g. using fuel cells that take energy from glucose
new materials allow to measure continously on very small levels
Capsule to swallow with
some battery when needed
capsule vor vascular system
ph Electroded at 10 nanometer and integrated in an electronic circuit
Tiny (nano) accelerometers to detect falls by the elderly.
analysis on a small chip
polymerase chain reaction used to analyse RNA
microelectrode arrays for use in cell cultures
grow nerv cells in micro patterns in this arrays
lab on a chip with micro fluids
do all of the processing like blood or urin on one microfabricated chip
put sample in and get a read out
are very specific in exactly what they can detect
Do it yourself
light based diagnostics and detection on nanoscale
nanotechnology for targeting drugs to cancer cells
nanotech for regeneration of complex tissues
We can make tissues that are very similar to biological tissues in function.
We can manufacture or fabricate tissues, cellular constructs that
mimic the structure and function of biological tissues.
chip with organisms on them to scale experiments
how to manifactur at nano scale?
Artifical Cells & Tissues
fundamental understanding of the mechanics and materials properties of the devices
how tissue reacts
foreign body response
seeding cells on scaffolds
controlling host rejection reaction
managing the differentiation of stem chells
the vascularization of artifical tissue
mimic the complexity of the three dimensinal tissue
recode DNA to generate new surface receptors on immune cells that help these cells target cancer cells.
tricking bacteria into producing useful biological compounds such as insulin produced from recombinant DNA.
Drug delivery technology has also improved dramatically, with various means of encapsulation. This enables the release of active agents at a pre-programmed rate and often at a targeted location in the body.
make a little microsphere and just by the choice of the polymer, that controls it, by the solubility of the drug, that controls it.
size of particles
use mostly polymers or lipids
intelligent micro chips to remote control drug delivery
can be delivered to a specific cell and to no other
deliver new drugs like siRNA to scilence genes or DNA to ativate
created to target particular cells by decorate their surface with specific chemicals or molecules, that home in on a cell surface molecule
surface is key to open the cell but also to not be pick up by macrophages
Single-Cell Analytics for Drug Discovery
take single cell from e.g. blood, spleen, other tissue
encapsulate in tiny drops
capture the secreted product
this include the cell, the product (e.g. anti body) and chemistries to observe interaction between antibody and target
anlyze that and if there is some interesting interaction pull that drop out
Microvalves to select the right cancer drug
Problem: receptor not active for this drug
but could be active for a combination or a different drug
take biopsy cells put them into microvalves
those are exposed to different combinations
also testing viruses instead of drugs
low cost (10$)
Scaffolding to grow cells
three-dimensional topography designed so as to encourage cell infiltration.
polymer chemistry and folding
3d replica printing
electrospinning to create porous materials and pathways
often degradable, leaving only the tissue in the body
take polymer scaffold, of a certain shape you want depending of organ/tissue
put certain cells on it
put it in a bioreactor and grow it
gives nutrients and the right mechanical force
create arteficial tissues and organs (tissue engineering)
combine mammalian cells with materials to create new tissues and organs
build a scaffold
seed cells on the scaffold
particles that release growth factors in controlled ways
find the right materials
make sure tissue is not rejected
reduce the foreign body reaction by local nano tech that immun supressors at the organ, not the complete body
enact RNA interference to knock down gene expressions
how to grow the cells the right way
keep them alive until use
Genetic Engineering & Synthetic Biology
recorind genes to produce new products
entire plasmids and chromosomes synthesized as a standard library of modules
circuits of genetic parts
Cellular & Molecular Biomechanics
how do cells sense mechanical forces, important for
mechanical stimulation causes surprising metabolic signaling cascades that can even change a cell's phenotype.
how do cells utilize force to explore environments
nano tech help us to understand the impact on force on the smallest "machine" in the body, protein
structural vs mechanical point of view
immune cells look for microbes in our body
know the receptors thay utilize to bind to microbes
know little about force
cell needs to create force to rupture the bactiria from a surface
Agricultural & Environmental Engineering
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