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Unilineal Evolutionists

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Added: October 01, 2009 15:08:22

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Unilineal Evolutionists

Unilineal Evolutionists
1 Materialists
1.1 Theories
1.2 Comparisons
1.3 Disagreements
1.4 Misc
2 Marx 1845
2.1 Materialistic Dualism

Materialistic Dualism Importance mode and means of production along with the development of division of labor Theories must be able to be empiracally tested Relationships are products of consciousness 1st premise -Existence of living humans distinguished from animals through producing a means of subsistence 2nd premise- (dual theory) Every means of subsistence has within it its opposite which poses conflictive force leading to conflict, and eventually a revolution leading to a new stage in society one after another 3rd premise- Capitalism, private ownership, its all about owning your own means of production. The value of anything now is determined by how much human labor went into it. Conflict->revolution 4th premise- Communist Revolution Utopian ideal get rid of private ownership, specialization, get paid according to your needs and how much work you put in, revolution must be world wide to be effective

2.2 Similar to Morgans Theory

However, the role of the family is lost Both use mode of production as evidence for progress in society and observe technological advances Heavily influenced by Marx theory of production mode of production changes society and how we live both are materialist look at technology to explain cultural change

2.3 Young Hegelians

Dislikes young hegelians because of their idealistic tendencies he accuses them of trying to change the world by changing their ideas

2.4 Eutopian but didnt want to be known as that
2.5 Favored communism
2.6 Spencer

Spencer Favors Specialization unlike Marx Marx thinks Specialization locking people into certain roles in society is one problem with capitalism and the system of production in complex society since people are alienated from their products of labor Spencer emphasizes social harmony while Marx emphasizes social conflict

3 Spencer 1860
3.1 Coined the phrase Survival of the Fittest

Society changes on its own just like plants and animals evolve Society grows bigger, more complex/specialized, and the constituent parts become codependent on each other Analogous to animal evolution as the organisms grow more complex organs and circulatory systems become more complex and more dependent on the other parts Look at complexity and size of society to tell how evolved it is Favors specialization Emphasizes social harmony and conflict leading to positive change Bigger societies take over and expand as a natural process

3.2 Evolution of Culture same as Bio Evolution
3.3 Morgan

Morgan's theory Cultural Evolution theory-cultures can change and progress similar to Spencer's theory but Spencer believes society changes on its own and to Morgan technology or human influence through production changes society Agrees with Spencer more complex organism is better

3.4 Tylor

Both took a similar approach to evolution of magic and religion Both were criticized for declaring Christianity had primtive roots like beliefs of people everywhere

4 Morgan 1877

Importance of progression of knowledge. Traced human history through our roots cultural evolution-cultures go through evolutionary changes, similar to Spencer's theory but more complex society changes based on the technology used similar to Marx theory the way we produce or mode of production changes society and the way we live Pottery is how you go from savage ->barbarism Phonetic Alphabet-> how you go from barbarism ->civilization

4.1 Stages of Civilization

Basic stages: Savage, Barbarism, Civilization Kinship and Family Relations Lower savage-indiscriminate mating Middle Savage-rules of incest develop, cross-cousins redifined as non-siblings Early Barbarism-lines of extended family develop lineage traced through the mother Later Barbarism-polgyny, lineage changes to father Civilization- modern nuclear family

4.2 Topic
4.3 only one that does fieldwork
4.4 Developed Iroquois Kinship Pattern
4.5 Spencer

Morgan's theory Cultural Evolution theory-cultures can change and progress similar to Spencer's theory but Spencer believes society changes on its own and to Morgan technology or human influence through production changes society Agrees with Spencer more complex organism is better

4.6 Marx

However, the role of the family is lost Both use mode of production as evidence for progress in society and observe technological advances Heavily influenced by Marx theory of production mode of production changes society and how we live both are materialist look at technology to explain cultural change

4.7 Tylor-Spencer Synthesis

Earliest spiritual concept is idea that anima or spirits possess animated objects he describes as a supernatural force primitive animism 2D-physical and spiritual dimension, spiritual dimension became the soul As cultures evolve the images or thoughts of the after-life evolve in tandem non-literate kin-based culture tend to believe ancestor worship prehistoric and primitive cultures with multiple, equally ranking lineages and clans Polytheism authority shrinks to one in civilization as society becomes class based and stratified under one ruler ex. Christianity, Monotheism monotheism was the end or mature stage of cultural evolution- the idea of progress but like bioevolution religious evolutionary stages still retain features of ancestral beliefs

5 Idealists
5.1 Theories
5.2 Comparisons
5.3 Disagreements
5.4 Misc
6 Tylor 1871
6.1 Evolution of mental processes (religion/magic) to assess progress

adhesions-cultural traits that are correlated survivals- non-functioning cultural traits that are clues to the past Against Christian ethnocentric evolutionary theory principle interest in evolution of magico-religous beliefs evolution of mental processes most important

6.2 Psychic unity

According to this doctrine, all peoples, primitive and civilized had the same basic capacity for cultural change. what makes us human is our ability to reason unlike materialist definition what makes us human is our ability to produce

6.3 Tylor-Spencer Synthesis

Earliest spiritual concept is idea that anima or spirits possess animated objects he describes as a supernatural force primitive animism 2D-physical and spiritual dimension, spiritual dimension became the soul As cultures evolve the images or thoughts of the after-life evolve in tandem non-literate kin-based culture tend to believe ancestor worship prehistoric and primitive cultures with multiple, equally ranking lineages and clans Polytheism authority shrinks to one in civilization as society becomes class based and stratified under one ruler ex. Christianity, Monotheism monotheism was the end or mature stage of cultural evolution- the idea of progress but like bioevolution religious evolutionary stages still retain features of ancestral beliefs

6.4 Criticized for saying Christianity had primitive roots
6.5 He's against materialism movement
6.6 Typical Armchair Anthropologist
6.7 1st definition of culture
A1 Morgan 1877

Cultural Evolution theory-cultures can change and progress similar to Spencer theory but Spencer believes society changes on its own and to Morgan technology or human influence through production changes society Agrees with Spencer more complex organism is better Heavily influenced by Marx theory of production mode of production changes society and how we live both are materialist look at technology to explain cultural change

A2 Spencer 1860

Spencer Favors Specialization unlike Marx Marx thinks Specialization locking people into certain roles in society is one problem with capitalism and the system of production in complex society since people are alienated from their products of labor Spencer emphasizes social harmony while Marx emphasizes social conflict

A3 Tylor 1871

Both took a similar approach to evolution of magic and religion Both were criticized for declaring Christianity had primtive roots like beliefs of people everywhere