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Tradition and Dissent in English Christianity

By adaly56

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Added: June 09, 2011 12:26:58

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Tradition and Dissent in English Christianity

Tradition and Dissent in English Christianity
1 What were some of the key differences between English Catholics and Protestants in the sixteenth century?
1.1 protestants focus on individials direct relationship with god not via priestly hierarchy
1.2 catholics focus on ceremony, material objects, ritual, procession etc
1.3 protestant discard belief in purgatory dispelling necessity of devotions for the dead
1.4 protestant focus on non visual i.e. written and preached worship as opposed to pictorial visual iconography of catholic church
1.4.1 biblical text study
1.4.2 participation in liturgy of book of common prayer
1.4.3 preaching
1.4.4 Grindal Issues Injunctions - evidence
1.4.5 grassroots level less stringent
1.4.5.1 long process
1.4.5.2 differences of experience between leaders and followers
1.4.6 austerity
1.5 pg 80
1.6 pg 76-77
1.6.1 Duffy
1.6.1.1 liturgical calander
1.6.1.2 centrality of worship via mass
1.6.1.3 communion bread body of christ
1.6.1.4 bound with community life
1.6.1.4.1 parish worship
1.6.1.4.2 brotherhood of trade guilds
1.6.1.4.3 spiritual community
1.6.1.4.3.1 saints
1.6.1.4.3.2 prayers for dead
2 In what ways did both come to represent themselves as upholders of the traditions of the Christian Church in the centuries that followed?
2.1 17th C
2.1.1 Recovering tradition (1625–42)
2.1.1.1 Charles I
2.1.1.2 William Laud
2.1.1.3 restore a more elaborate Catholic tradition of worship
2.1.1.3.1 the beauty of holiness
2.1.1.4 replace altars
2.1.1.5 rise to the civil war of the 1640s
2.1.2 The triumph of dissent (1642–60)
2.1.2.1 execution of Charles I in 1649,
2.1.2.2 recasting of the church in a much more Protestant direction
2.1.2.2.1 abolition of bishops
2.1.2.2.2 banning of the Prayer Book
2.1.2.3 radical Protestant groups
2.1.2.3.1 Independents (later Congregationalists)
2.1.2.3.1.1 autonomy of individual congregations
2.1.2.3.2 Society of Friends (Quakers)
2.1.2.3.2.1 individual’s personal experience of God
2.1.2.3.2.2 rejected formal church structures
2.1.3 Reasserting Anglicanism (1660–85)
2.1.3.1 Charles II
2.1.3.2 bishops were reinstated
2.1.3.3 modified version of the Book of Common Prayer was reimposed
2.1.3.4 religious groups who refused to conform to the Church of England continued to be persecuted
2.1.3.4.1 Dissenters
2.1.3.4.1.1 Baptists
2.1.3.4.1.2 Presbyterians
2.1.3.4.1.3 Independents
2.1.3.4.1.4 Quakers
2.1.3.5 1662 Book of Common Prayer remains (in 2007) the official liturgy of the Church of England
2.1.4 Crisis and settlement (1685–1714)
2.1.4.1 James II
2.1.4.1.1 1688 when he was deposed
2.1.4.1.2 Roman Catholic
2.1.4.1.3 replaced by his Protestant daughter, Mary II,
2.1.4.2 reaffirmation of the Protestant identity of the Church of England
2.1.4.3 suppress Roman Catholicism
2.2 18th C
2.2.1 reduction in the intensity of the religious conflicts
2.2.2 legacy of earlier disputes remained
2.2.3 less of a force that destabilised and disrupted society by demanding total commitment from its adherents
2.2.4 protestants
2.2.4.1 challenges to the dominant order in the Church of England
2.2.4.1.1 Evangelical or Methodist movement
2.2.4.1.1.1 John Wesley (1703–91)
2.2.4.1.1.2 George Whitefield (1714–70).
2.2.4.1.1.2.1 leader of the Calvinistic Methodists,
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1 critique of anglican clergy
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.1 many of them deny what he maintains is essential Christian doctrine
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 hat in order to enter heaven one must experience a spiritual new birth in conversion, as well as baptism with water.
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 true religion is a matter of inward conviction and experience, whereas he suggests his opponents see it as a matter of outward observance and ritual
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.2 their moral conduct is deficient
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.2.1 frequent taverns
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.2.2 engage in dubious secular pastimes
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.2.3 too interested in financial gain.
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.3 they neglect their spiritual duties
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.3.1 failing to catechise (i.e. teach) children
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.3.2 to visit their parishioners
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.3.3 to provide necessary moral and spiritual guidance.
2.2.4.1.1.2.1.1.4 their deficiencies and hypocrisies mean that Christianity appears a sham
2.2.4.1.1.2.2 one’s first reaction is to think that Whitefield saw himself as a dissenter
2.2.4.1.1.2.3 but on closer inspection he saw himself as a true traditionalist, upholding what he believed to be the religious values of an earlier age
2.2.4.1.1.3 All Methodists were Evangelicals, but not all Evangelicals were Methodists
2.2.4.1.1.4 initial aspiration was to renew and reform the Church of England itself, rather than to create a new denomination.
2.2.4.1.1.5 zealous preaching
2.2.4.1.1.5.1 initially in churches,
2.2.4.1.1.5.2 open air
2.2.4.1.2 Evangelicalism
2.2.4.1.2.1 wide and diffuse
2.2.4.1.2.1.1 supported by many who remained in the Church of England
2.2.4.1.2.1.2 and the older Dissenting churches
2.2.4.1.2.2 particular Protestant teachings
2.2.4.1.2.2.1 supreme authority of the Bible
2.2.4.1.2.2.2 pivotal significance of Jesus’ sacrificial death on the cross in bringing about reconciliation between God and humankind.
2.2.4.1.2.2.3 importance of individuals having a crisis moment of conversion to true Christian commitment,
2.2.4.1.2.2.4 vigorously activist in spreading their teachings.
2.2.4.1.3 Methodism
2.2.4.1.3.1 organised institutional structure
2.2.4.1.3.2 became a distinct religious denomination
2.2.5 catholics
2.2.5.1 methodists can also instructively be compared with that of the surviving Roman Catholic minority (known as recusants).
2.2.5.1.1 Persecution subsided
2.2.5.1.2 but Catholics suffered from
2.2.5.1.2.1 substantial legal disabilities
2.2.5.1.2.2 unable to take any significant part in public life
2.2.5.1.2.3 great medieval churches and cathedrals were appropriated by the Church of England
2.2.5.1.2.4 Their clergy were overseen by missionary ‘vicars-apostolic’ rather than by the traditional bishops of fixed geographical dioceses
2.2.5.1.3 nevertheless saw itself as the guardian of the authentic tradition of true Christianity
2.2.5.1.4 in many ways it came to appear to be just one more variety of dissent in a religious world dominated by the Church of England.
2.3 19th C
2.3.1 massive expansion of organised religious Dissent
2.3.2 first half of the nineteenth century its supremacy was steadily eroded. Church of England
2.3.3 gaps in provision provided openings for other denomination
2.3.3.1 dramatic growth was that of the Methodists
2.3.3.2 Roman Catholic population, swelled by immigration from Ireland
2.3.4 the Church of England had the largest share of any single denomination, at 48.57 per cent, but the combined forces of Protestant Dissent amounted to 47.43 per cent. balance RC
2.3.5 Oxford Movement
2.3.5.1 1830s
2.3.5.1.1 Keble, 1833)
2.3.5.1.1.1 sought to recover the more Catholic side of Anglican identity
2.3.5.1.1.1.1 traditions and authority
2.3.5.1.1.1.2 ritualistic forms of worship.
2.3.5.2 either a reassertion of ‘tradition’ or as radical ‘dissent’
2.3.5.2.1 its own eyes, it was bringing the church back to its true tradition
2.3.5.2.2 in the eyes of its critics it was unwelcome dissent from the moderate Protestant consensus
2.3.6 Evangelicals
2.3.6.1 ch more Protestant
2.3.7 religious tradition was asserted
2.3.7.1 church buildings
2.3.7.1.1 1841 Walter Hook
2.3.7.1.1.1 vicar of Leeds
2.3.7.1.1.1.1 rebuilt his parish church on a grand scale in an imitation medieval style
2.3.7.1.1.1.1.1 challenge to the Methodists
2.3.7.1.2 1838 built a grandiose Centenary Chapel York
2.3.7.1.2.1 Methodists
2.3.7.1.2.1.1 replaced their earlier much more modest building
2.3.7.1.2.1.1.1 asserted a contrast to nearby Anglican medieval churches by appealing to an even older architectural tradition,
2.3.7.1.3 St Wilfrid’s church (1864),York
2.3.7.1.3.1 Roman Catholics
2.3.7.1.3.1.1 direct visual challenge to York Minster (Anglican)
2.3.7.1.4 1838
2.3.7.1.4.1 Birmingham
2.3.7.1.4.1.1 Augustus Welby Pugin
2.3.7.1.4.1.1.1 St Chad’s built 1839-1841
2.3.8 1850
2.3.8.1 pivotl of rc revival
2.3.8.1.1 Pope Pius IX
2.3.8.1.1.1 territorial bishoprics in England and Wales