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Advertising "assemblages" 1919-1929

Add by carmand | May 12, 2017 15:00  521 |  1
Advertising "assemblages" 1919-1929
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Advertising "assemblages" 1919-1929
1 System/configuration of representations (P5)
1.1 Page landscapes
1.2 Copy models
1.2.1 Shorter texts
1.2.2 Realistic image of the package/product
1.2.3 Lively illustrations
1.2.4 Ornamental and stronger borders
1.2.5 Play on typography
1.2.6 No genuine title or slogan
1.3 Discursive styles
1.3.1 Residual hyperbolic style
1.3.1.1 Exaggeration
1.3.1.2 Superlative tone
1.3.1.3 Universal panacea (to cure everyone and everything)
1.3.2 Prominent rational style
1.3.2.1 Testimonials from experts or celebrities
1.3.2.2 Warning against imitations
1.3.2.3 Shorter educational and descriptive texts (reason-why copy)
1.3.3 Emergence of emotional/suggestive style
1.3.3.1 Appealing and lively illustrations
1.3.3.1.1 Sexy women
1.3.3.1.2 Ideal mother and family
1.3.3.1.3 Children
1.3.3.2 Appeal to the senses and emotions (rich and refined lexical field related to touch, taste and emotions)
1.4 Appeals
1.4.1 Health
1.4.2 Taste
1.4.3 Sex/Beauty
1.4.4 Child/Youth
1.4.5 Happiness
2 System/configuration of actors (P3, P4)
2.1 Advertising agents/professionals
2.1.1 Multiplication of full-service/integrated agencies in the wake of the first generations (Oriental Advertising Agency 1914, Carl Crow Inc 1918) ; 6 legitimate/genuine/profession advertising agencies in Shanghai by 1929 ; 4 major agencies with a total aggregate turnover estimated at > 1 million mexican dollars ; four major agencies, each one claiming 15-25 clients, mostly American and European firms (Bacon, 1929 : 758)
2.1.1.1 Oriental Advertising Agency (Oriental Press, proprietors) (1914): still connected with Oriental Press (same office on Edward VII avenue) ; art studio ; workshop for making billboards ; sole agents for Shanghai Electric Construction Company (tramways) ; sole agent in China for Philips Neon Tubes -> pionneer in neon light advertising, special department for neon light (before the creation of Claude Neon Lights, Fed. Inc. in Shanghai in 1929). (Bacon, 1929 : 758-759)
2.1.1.2 Carl Crow, Inc (1918) : resisted to increasing competition, said to have introduce standardized outdoor advertising (defined by flat rate and uniform service) ; specialized in circular letters to buyers, credited with excellent results ; advocate for single poster boards ; proprietor of the Shanghai Evening Post and Mercury (until 1930) ; (Bacon, 1929 : 759)
2.1.1.3 China Publicity Company (before 1922): one of the best equipped advertising bureau in the world, well patronized by Chinese elites (offers facilities in making cooper and zinc plates, for making colored images and used the latest scientific process of printing (Bacon, 1929 : 760)
2.1.1.4 China Commercial Advertising Agency (C.C.A.A.), first and largest Chinese agency in Shanghai (1926), specialized in press advertising; annual turnover estimated at 300 000 mexican dollars ; (Bacon, 1929 : 760)
2.1.1.5 Acme Advertising Agency (Henry Crawshaw), American agency specialized in outdoor advertising
2.1.1.6 Millington, Ltd. (1928), first and largest British agenc y in Shanghai, annual turnover > 100 000 dollar (1929) ; author/editor of several reference directories (Hong and Homes - successor to the Rosenstock directory - Hong List, Shanghai telephone list)
2.1.1.7 United Advisers (later "Consolidated"/Lianhe) : not considered among the four major agencies, due to its exclusive specialization into press advertising; main source for Bacon reports and statistical data regarding press advertising and the advertising profession in the 1920s (Bacon, 1929: 755) ;
2.1.2 Permanence/persistance of "amateur" if not "quack" advertising agents (about 50 in 1929), mere "space brokers" or solicitors for newspapers, on commission basis, rather than genuine agents concerned with their clients's service and demonstrating a genuine expertise and able to conduct scientific advertising campaigns -> those amateurs were considered as a source of confusion for legitimate agencies (Bacon, 1929 : 755)
2.2 Advertised goods/services
2.2.1 Business sectors
2.2.1.1 Types of products/services
2.2.1.1.1 Brands
2.2.2 An initial bipartition of market and medium between cigarette advertised in the streets and medicines advertising in the press
2.2.2.1 Patent medicines in the press: do not diminish but were competed by other new items, so their share gradually shrunk in the 1920s (Bacon, 1929: 756)
2.2.2.2 Cigarette advertised through outdoor advertising represented 1 million dollars per year (Bacon, 1929 : 756)
2.2.3 A more complex - if not borgesian - classification of products advertised in the Chinese press, established by Chinese scholars (CEM, 1926 ; quoted by Bacon, 1929 : 763)
2.2.3.1 1/3 of patent medicines
2.2.3.2 21% of economic items
2.2.3.3 The rest of newspaper space was shared between amusements, luxuries, daily commodities, educational and miscellaneous products
2.3 Advertisers/Manufacturing companies
2.3.1 Foreign manufacturers (15%) invested $200000 per year in newspapers (Bacon, 1929: 754)
2.3.2 Chinese manufacturers (85%) invested > $200000 per year in newspapers (Bacon, 1929: 754)
2.3.3 Two major companies competed for cigarette market (together investing > 1 million dollar per year in outdoor advertising) (Bacon, 1929: 754) -> presumably BAT/Nanyang?
2.4 Local agents/distributors in Shanghai, China
2.4.1 GRENARD & COMPANY, L. [PHARMACIE FRANCAISE]
2.4.2 LLEWELLYN & CO., LTD
2.4.3 RACINE, ACKERMANN & CIE [SOCIETE ANONYME]
2.4.4 GREAT CHINA DISPENSARY
2.4.5 SINCERE COMPANY
2.4.6 BOYES, BASSETT & COMPANY [KUHN & COMPANY]
2.4.7 HEACOCK & CHEEK COMPANY
2.4.8 時計公司
2.4.9 華興利
2.4.10 中美 
2.4.11 亨得利
2.4.12 美華利
2.4.13 史惟記
2.4.14 保威
2.4.15 茂得利
2.4.16 大中
2.4.17 榮華祥
2.4.18 亨逹利
2.4.19 孫廣興義泰祥
2.4.20 朱煜生
2.4.21 大美
2.4.22 先施公司
2.4.23 華盛頓
2.4.24 永安公司
2.4.25 紐約標準公司
2.4.26 MELCHERS & COMPANY
2.4.27 MUSTARD & COMPANY
2.4.28 CONNELL BROTHERS COMPANY, LiMIITED
2.4.29 OLIVIER & COMPANIE
2.4.30 RONDON & COMPANY, LIMITED (LOUIS)
2.4.31 YOUNG LEE COMPANY [THE]
2.4.32 MCBAIN, GEORGE
2.5 Business sectors, advertised goods or services, advertisers and brandnames
2.5.1 Beauty/Appearance
2.5.1.1 BIJOU PERFUMERY [THE]
2.5.1.2 COTY, INC.
2.5.1.2.1 Coty
2.5.1.3 PIVER, L.T.
2.5.1.3.1 Piver
2.5.1.4 JACKSON & COMPANY, JOHN (OF MITCHAM)
2.5.1.4.1 MITCHAM LAVENDER WATER
2.5.1.5 ORSAY, D' [MAISON DE PARFUM]
2.5.1.5.1 Parfum d'Orsay (le)
2.5.1.5.2 Fleurs d'Orsay (les)
2.5.1.6 ROGER & GALLET
2.5.1.6.1 ROGER & GALLET
2.5.1.7 LAOU KIU CHWANG KUNG KEE SILK COMPANY
2.5.1.8 LAOU KIU LUEN & COMPANY [THE LION SILK STORE]
2.5.1.9 MACBETH, GRAY & COMPANY
2.5.1.10 MAISON ADIX [THE FRENCH SILK SHOP]
2.5.1.11 BRITISH MANUFACTURERS AGENCY, LIMITED [THE]
2.5.1.12 ARTS AND CRAFT, LTD.
2.5.1.13 Bower, Hanbury & Company
2.5.1.14 GUANGSHENG COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.1.14.1 Two sisters brand 双妹老牌
2.5.1.15 KELLER, KERN & COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.1.16 LEVY & COMPANY, S.E.
2.5.1.17 WING ON TEXTILE MANUFACTURING COMPANY
2.5.1.18 YASHUA COMPANY 牙刷公司
2.5.1.18.1 Three stars 三星牌
2.5.1.19 全國洋廣貨號
2.5.1.19.1 Tiger brand snow cream 虎牌 白蘭霜
2.5.1.20 遠東化學社
2.5.1.21 三不堂第一商店
2.5.1.22 大成工商社
2.5.1.23 何恒昌
2.5.1.24 毅勤絲綿絹線工藝廠
2.5.1.25 華商紗布交易所股份有限公司 [上海]
2.5.1.26 絲毛襪廠
2.5.1.27 彙通公司
2.5.1.28 恒豐泰皮貨行 [福申里]
2.5.1.29 鄭祥泰皮局
2.5.1.30 南洋襪廠
2.5.1.31 華新羽絨公司
2.5.1.32 Xinchang maojihao
2.5.1.33 Hengfengtai pihuo hang [Fushenli]
2.5.1.34 Dachang banyichang
2.5.1.35 Huayang tongtiechuang gongsi
2.5.1.36 Yuexinchangchang
2.5.1.37 Huachang tongtiechuang gongsi
2.5.1.38 Nanyang tongtiechuang gongsi
2.5.2 Culture
2.5.2.1 CHOW TZU KONG [BOOKSELLER]
2.5.2.2 EVANS & SONS, EDWARD, LTD.
2.5.2.3 KELLY & WALSH, LIMITED
2.5.2.4 NORTH CHINA DAILY NEWS & HERALD, LTD.
2.5.2.5 CROWN PHOTO STUDIO COMPANY [THE]
2.5.2.6 MAFEL & COMPANY
2.5.2.7 MOUTRIE & COMPANY, S., LIMITED
2.5.2.8 ROBINSON PIANO COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.2.9 TUCKSON & COMPANY
2.5.2.10 ANGLO-CHINESE IMPORT & EXPORT COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.2.11 DICKINSON & COMPANY, JOHN, LTD. [London]
2.5.2.12 JENSEN, G.S.
2.5.2.13 OFFICE APPLIANCE COMPANY, LIMITED [THE]
2.5.2.14 OLIVER TYPEWRITER COMPANY
2.5.2.15 REMINGTON TYPEWRITER AND BOOK-KEEPING MACHINE AGENCY
2.5.2.16 ROYAL TYPEWRITER COMPANY
2.5.2.17 STANDARD PRODUCTS COMPANY, INC.
2.5.2.18 THOMPSON TYPE MACHINE COMPANY [THE]
2.5.2.19 UNDERWOOD TYPEWRITER COMPANY
2.5.2.20 WAHL-EVERSHARP PEN COMPANY
2.5.2.21 WATSON & SON, E.R., LTD.
2.5.2.22 ISMER & COMPANY, C.
2.5.2.23 CHINA LIBRARY 中國圖書館
2.5.2.24 CHINA PUBLISHING HOUSE 中華書局 [alias CHINA BOOKSTORE]
2.5.2.25 COMMERCIAL PRESS
2.5.2.26 EASTERN TIMES 東方時報 [發行部]
2.5.2.27 EHLERS & COMPANY, A.
2.5.2.28 FUDAN UNIVERSITY
2.5.2.29 MAPPIN & WEBB [LONDON, ENGLAND]
2.5.2.30 Nanyang Normal School for Girls 南洋女子師範學校
2.5.2.31 Shanghai college of English 上海英語專門學校
2.5.2.32 Shanghai normal art school 上海藝術師範原名上海專科師範學校
2.5.2.33 Shanghai University 上海大學
2.5.2.34 Shanghai Y.M.C.A. senior high school 上海青年會高級中學
2.5.2.35 SHENBAO
2.5.2.36 世界書局
2.5.2.37 吳淞中國公學中學部
2.5.2.38 大同大學
2.5.2.39 美國邭立務本專門學校
2.5.2.40 南方大學函授部社會
2.5.2.41 文治大學
2.5.2.42 國立自治學院
2.5.2.43 辛酉學社商業專門學校
2.5.2.44 浦東中學
2.5.2.45 文明書局
2.5.2.46 大陸圖書公司 [編輯社會]
2.5.2.47 大東書局
2.5.2.48 上海亞東圖書館
2.5.2.49 朱楨師
2.5.2.50 王鈍根主編社會
2.5.2.51 大陸圖書公司
2.5.2.52 三友合作社
2.5.2.53 國文敎師
2.5.2.54 上海學校化學工藝面授函
2.5.2.55 函授英語
2.5.2.56 新商業社函授學校
2.5.2.57 美華印書館
2.5.2.58 上海交通路新學會社
2.5.2.59 杭州西湖西泠印社
2.5.2.60 上海女學曁男學部游藝大會
2.5.2.61 生生美術公司
2.5.2.62 西門美術用品社
2.5.2.63 民權出版部
2.5.2.64 上海書業公所
2.5.2.65 掃葉山房
2.5.2.66 大陸圖書公司
2.5.2.67 新奇影戲社
2.5.2.68 三友合作社
2.5.2.69 粤昌照相卡紙公司
2.5.2.70 家庭工業社
2.5.3 Engineering/Industry
2.5.3.1 ATELIERS DE CONSTRUCTIONS ELECTRIQUES DE CHARLEROI [A.C.E.C.]
2.5.3.2 BRUNTONS
2.5.3.3 CALLENDER'S CABLE AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANY
2.5.3.4 CAMMELL LAIRD & COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.3.5 CHEE HSIN CEMENT COMPANY, LTD. [THE]
2.5.3.6 COOKSON & COMPANY, LD.
2.5.3.7 DUNCAN & COMPANY
2.5.3.8 ELLISON, GEORGE
2.5.3.9 ETERNIT PIETRA ARTIFICIALE, S.A.
2.5.3.10 GREEN ISLAND CEMENT COMPANY, LD.
2.5.3.11 HOLDERBANK FACTORY
2.5.3.12 HONGKONG ROPE MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LD
2.5.3.13 HOPKINSON & COMPANY, LD.
2.5.3.14 JACKS & COMPANY, WILLIAM
2.5.3.15 KAILAN MINING ADMINISTRATION
2.5.3.16 MASTER & COMPANY, M.J.
2.5.3.17 NORTH BORNEO TRADING COMPANY, LD.
2.5.3.18 PARAFFINE PAINT COMPANY [THE]
2.5.3.19 RECESS SCREWS LIMITED
2.5.3.20 ROSE, DOWNS & THOMPSON, LIMITED
2.5.3.21 SANDUSKY PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY {THE] [MEDUSA CORPORATION]
2.5.3.22 SHANGHAI PORTLAND CEMENT WORKS LIMITED
2.5.3.23 SHEWAN, TOMES & COMPANY
2.5.3.24 TZAR ZUNG MOW
2.5.3.25 DUPONT DE NEMOURS & COMPANY, INC., E.I.
2.5.3.26 HONIGSBERG & COMPANY, H.S., INC.
2.5.3.27 UNIVERSAL HIRE SERVICE
2.5.3.28 WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
2.5.3.29 OLIVIER & COMPANIE
2.5.3.30 ROBBINS & MYERS COMPANY
2.5.3.31 WILKINSON, HEYWOOD & CLARK, LTD.
2.5.3.32 YOKOHAMA NURSERY COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.3.33 YULE & COMPANY, ANDREW, LD.
2.5.3.34 SYNCHRONOME COMPANY
2.5.3.35 CHINESE ENGINEERING & MINING COMPANY, LIMITED [THE]
2.5.3.36 ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH MACHINE TOOL MAKERS, LIMITED
2.5.3.37 FEDERATION OF ENGLISH INDUSTRY
2.5.3.38 SHANGHAI POWER COMPANY
2.5.3.39 AUTO PALACE
2.5.3.40 Stinnes China Company, Hugo
2.5.3.41 Philips China Company
2.5.3.42 茂泰祥電機紙盒廠
2.5.4 Finance
2.5.4.1 BANK OF CANTON, LIMITED
2.5.4.2 BANK OF COMMUNICATIONS
2.5.4.3 BANK OF EAST ASIA, LIMITED [THE]
2.5.4.4 BANK OF TAIWAN [THE] [alias TAIWAN GINKO]
2.5.4.5 BANQUE BELGE POUR L'ETRANGER, S.A. [SOCIETE GENERALE DE Belgique]
2.5.4.6 CHINESE-AMERICAN BANK OF COMMERCE [THE]
2.5.4.7 COMMERCIAL BANK OF CHINA [IMPERIAL BANK OF CHINA]
2.5.4.8 COOK & SONS BANKERS, THOMAS, LTD.
2.5.4.9 EQUITABLE EASTERN BANKING CORPORATION [CHASE BANK]
2.5.4.10 EQUITABLE EASTERN BANKING CORPORATION [SHANGHAI OFFICE]
2.5.4.11 INTERNATIONAL BANKING CORPORATION [NATIONAL CITY BANK OF NEW YORK]
2.5.4.12 MERCANTILE BANK OF INDIA, LIMITED [THE]
2.5.4.13 MITSUBISHI BANK, LIMITED
2.5.4.14 MITSUI BANK, LD.
2.5.4.15 NATIONAL COMMERCIAL BANK, LIMITED [THE]
2.5.4.16 NETHERLANDS TRADING SOCIETY [NEDERLANDSCHE HANDEL MAATSCHAPPY]
2.5.4.17 PENINSULAR & ORIENTAL BANKING CORPORATION, LIMITED [P. & O.] [alias ALLAHABAD BANK, LIMITED]
2.5.4.18 SINO-ITALIAN BANK
2.5.4.19 SMALL INVESTORS, LD. [THE]
2.5.4.20 SOCIETE FRANCAISE DE GERANCE DE LA BANQUE INDUSTRIELLE DE CHINE, S.A.
2.5.4.21 SUMITOMO BANK, LTD
2.5.4.22 YOKOHAMA SPECIE BANK LIMITED
2.5.4.23 BARLOW & COMPANY
2.5.4.24 BLOM & VAN DER AA. [General agents for Fire Insurance]
2.5.4.25 BRITISH TRADERS' INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.4.26 BUTTERFIELD & SWIRE
2.5.4.27 CANTON INSURANCE OFFICE, LIMITED
2.5.4.28 COMMERCIAL UNION ASSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.4.29 COOK & SONS BANKERS, THOMAS, LTD.
2.5.4.30 EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY ASSURANCE COMPORATION, LD.
2.5.4.31 EXCESS INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD. [SPARKE INSURANCE OFFICE, C.E.]
2.5.4.32 GENERAL ACCIDENT, FIRE AND LIFE ASSURANCE CORPORATION, LTD. [FAR EASTERN MANAGER]
2.5.4.33 GUARDIAN ASSURANCE COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.4.34 HARRISONS, KING & IRWIN
2.5.4.35 HOPKINS, DUNN & COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.4.36 ILBERT & COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.4.37 LONDON & LANCASHIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.4.38 LONDON ASSURANCE CORPORATION [THE]
2.5.4.39 MCMULLEN & COMPANY, JAMES, LD. [Sub-Agents]
2.5.4.40 NEW ZEALAND INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED [FAR EASTERN BRANCH]
2.5.4.41 OCEAN ACCIDENT & GUARANTEE CORPORATION, LIMITED [THE]
2.5.4.42 ORIENT INSURANCE COMPANY
2.5.4.43 PHOENIX ASSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED, OF LONDON
2.5.4.44 PRUDENTIAL ASSURANCE COMPANY, LTD. [THE]
2.5.4.45 ROYAL EXCHANGE ASSURANCE CORPORATION
2.5.4.46 SCOTT, HARDING & COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.4.47 SIMON LEVY & NISSIM, LTD.
2.5.4.48 SPARKE INSURANCE OFFICE, C.E.
2.5.4.49 STANDARD MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, LD.
2.5.4.50 SUN LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF Canada
2.5.4.51 ARNHOLD & COMPANY, LD.
2.5.4.52 ASIA REALTY COMPANY [alias A.R.CO.]
2.5.4.53 MACDONALD & COMPANY, THOMAS, [alias SOONG MOW]
2.5.4.54 CHUNG HWA UMBRELLA FACTORY
2.5.4.55 FANO, R., BASSET, L., THESMAR, J. [COMMISSAIRES-PRISEURS]
2.5.4.56 FUNDER & CO., W.
2.5.4.57 TROLLOPE & COLLS (FAR EAST), LTD
2.5.4.58 BANQUE DE L'INDO-CHINE
2.5.4.59 CHARTERED BANK OF INDIA, AUSTRALIA, AND CHINA [THE]
2.5.4.60 HONGKONG & SHANGHAI BANKING CORPORATION [alias H.S.B.C]
2.5.4.61 INTERNATIONAL SAVINGS SOCIETY
2.5.4.62 RUSSO-ASIATIC BANK
2.5.4.63 MOORE & COMPANY, L., LIMITED
2.5.4.64 NOEL, MURRAY & CO. LIMITED
2.5.4.65 RACINE, ACKERMANN & CIE [SOCIETE ANONYME]
2.5.4.66 Algar & Company, Ltd.
2.5.4.67 CHINA BANKERS ASSOCIATION [Shanghai branch]
2.5.4.68 SHANGHAI AGRICULTURAL BANK
2.5.4.69 SHANGHAI BANK
2.5.4.70 SHANGHAI BANKERS' ASSOCIATION
2.5.4.71 SHANGHAI COMMERCIAL & SAVINGS BANK, LTD.
2.5.4.72 SHANGHAI STOCK EXCHANGE CORPORATION
2.5.4.73 大陸銀行
2.5.4.74 中法儲蓄會
2.5.4.75 大北儲蓄會
2.5.4.76 通易信託公司
2.5.4.77 遠東華僑墾植銀行
2.5.4.78 裕華銀行
2.5.4.79 中孚銀行
2.5.4.80 徐州中華國民儲蓄會
2.5.4.81 儉德儲蓄會
2.5.4.82 章士釗行
2.5.4.83 興誠銀行
2.5.4.84 老義隆代表紅坊全體同人
2.5.4.85 北京交通
2.5.4.86 上海交通
2.5.4.87 浙江興業銀行
2.5.4.88 新華儲蓄銀行
2.5.4.89 金城
2.5.4.90 天津交通
2.5.4.91 上海金業交易所股份有限公司
2.5.4.92 中國股票公司
2.5.4.93 鹽業銀行
2.5.4.94 上海中華滙業銀行
2.5.4.95 大陸圖書公司
2.5.4.96 新華儲蓄銀行
2.5.4.97 上海大陸銀行保管部
2.5.4.98 ASIA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, INCORPORATED
2.5.4.99 T’a Ch’ang Kung Sze 泰昌公司 [英商]
2.5.4.100 Yorkshire Fire & Life Insurance Company
2.5.4.101 上海華商水火險公司
2.5.4.102 金星人壽保險公司
2.5.4.103 福建沿海東冲保安局
2.5.4.104 上等房產
2.5.4.105 暎相公司
2.5.4.106 CHINA EXPORT-IMPORT & BANK COMPAGNIE, LIMITED
2.5.4.107 東北城商業聯合會
2.5.4.108 遠東貿易公司
2.5.4.109 興昌祥餘記號
2.5.4.110 SHANGHAI LAWYERS GUILD
2.5.4.111 Shanghai Mixed Court
2.5.4.112 高露玲律師
2.5.4.113 哈華托麥克勞大律師
2.5.4.114 穆安素律師
2.5.4.115 和盛號 [白來士會計師]
2.5.4.116 孫鑑律師
2.5.4.117 寳和洋行
2.5.4.118 三發洋行
2.5.4.119 文超律師
2.5.5 Health/Hygiene
2.5.5.1 ALLEN & HANBURYS LIMITED
2.5.5.2 BAUER CHEMICAL COMPANY
2.5.5.3 BEECHAMS PILLS COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.5.4 BOOTS TAYLORS TIMOTHY WHITE
2.5.5.5 BOVRIL COMPANY
2.5.5.6 CHINA, JAPAN & TRADING COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.5.7 DR. LECLERC
2.5.5.8 DR. WILLIAMS' MEDICINE COMPANY [FULFORD & COMPANY, LIMITED, G.T. of Canada]
2.5.5.9 EVANS SONS LESCHER & WEBB, LIMITED
2.5.5.10 LABORATOIRES MIDY [MIDY FRERES]
2.5.5.11 PHARMACIE CHATELAIN [GRANDE PHARMACIE MODERNE DES DEUX-SEVRES]
2.5.5.12 SHANGHAI PHARMACY, LIMITED [THE]
2.5.5.13 VICHY CELESTINS
2.5.5.14 WATSON & COMPANY, A.S.
2.5.5.15 GERMOL DISINFECTANT COMPANY?
2.5.5.15.1 Germol
2.5.5.16 FORD COMPANY, J.B.
2.5.5.16.1 WYANDOTTE DETERGENT
2.5.5.17 GILLETTE COMPANY [THE]
2.5.5.18 NEWBURY & SONS, F. , LTD.
2.5.5.18.1 CUTICURA SOAP
2.5.5.19 SCRUBB & COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.5.19.1 SCRUBBS'S CLOUDY AMMONIA
2.5.5.20 WEEKS & COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.5.21 OCULISTS' INSTITUTE COMPANY
2.5.5.22 THOMPSON, DR. R.A.
2.5.5.23 BRITISH MEDICAL IMPORTS COMPANY [THE]
2.5.5.24 CHAMBERLAIN MEDICINE COMPANY MANUFACTURING PHARMACISTS
2.5.5.25 HIMROD MANUFACTURING COMPANY
2.5.5.26 KOFA AMERICAN DRUG COMPANY
2.5.5.27 NATHAN & COMPANY, JOSEPH, LIMITED [alias GLAXO]
2.5.5.27.1 Glaxo Powdered Milk
2.5.5.28 SCOTT & BOWNE MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS
2.5.5.28.1 Scott's Emulsion
2.5.5.29 Brunner, Mond & Company (China), Ltd.
2.5.5.30 Chesebrough Manufacturing Company, Consolidated
2.5.5.31 De Witt & Company, Ltd., E. C.
2.5.5.32 ETABLISSEMENTS BYLA, LES
2.5.5.33 Fletcher & Company, Ltd.
2.5.5.34 GREAT CHINA DISPENSARY
2.5.5.35 INTERNATIONAL DISPENSARY [FIVE CONTINENTS DRUGSTORE]
2.5.5.36 HORLD F. RITCHIE & COMPANY, INC. [HALL & RUCKELL's SALES REPRESENTATIVES]
2.5.5.36.1 Sodozont
2.5.5.37 KOREC, Dr., M.D.
2.5.5.38 柏林華發大葯行製造
2.5.5.39 寳威大藥行
2.5.5.40 太和大藥房
2.5.5.41 利亞化學製藥公司
2.5.5.42 九福公司
2.5.5.43 老仁濟藥房
2.5.5.44 華英製藥社
2.5.5.45 三層樓洋房吉林寗康參局滬局
2.5.5.46 中德醫院
2.5.5.47 洞庭東山嚴大德葯舖
2.5.5.48 中國精神研究會
2.5.5.49 德和製藥公司
2.5.5.50 濟生藥房
2.5.5.51 廣東保太和
2.5.5.52 上海盆湯弄人壽醫藥室
2.5.5.53 德法老藥房製藥公司
2.5.5.54 馮氏
2.5.5.55 廣東種德園老藥局
2.5.5.56 美國安寧公司
2.5.5.57 京都天寳齋
2.5.5.58 回春老藥局
2.5.5.59 德和製藥公司 [程鳳生醫生秘製]
2.5.5.60 天吉堂
2.5.5.61 徐一公司
2.5.5.62 大生製藥公司
2.5.5.63 惟栽號
2.5.5.64 普太太和號
2.5.5.65 蘇瑞生藥局
2.5.5.66 普達製藥廠
2.5.5.67 廣東仙壽窩
2.5.5.68 廣東杏林軒
2.5.5.69 廣東保太和
2.5.5.70 杏濟堂
2.5.5.71 太平洋藥公司
2.5.5.72 鍊雲藥房 [香港]
2.5.5.73 上海粹華製藥廠
2.5.5.74 高長順牙科醫生
2.5.5.75 合組醫院
2.5.5.76 大精神醫學研究會
2.5.5.77 林自由老醫生
2.5.5.78 京都天寳齋
2.5.5.79 中和醫院
2.5.5.80 山東泰安大汶口劉尚德
2.5.5.81 法藥房製藥公司
2.5.5.82 北京保春堂
2.5.5.83 伯庸大藥房
2.5.5.84 友仁氏製藥公司
2.5.5.85 洋房中華營業社
2.5.5.86 廣東接元堂
2.5.5.87 法國大藥房
2.5.5.88 新華大藥行
2.5.5.89 大陸藥房
2.5.5.90 亞洲西藥局
2.5.5.91 中西醫藥函授學校
2.5.5.92 書藥公所印行
2.5.5.93 牙刷公司
2.5.5.94 香亞公司
2.5.5.95 上海雙輪牙刷股份有限公司
2.5.5.96 家庭工業社
2.5.5.97 愼昌手表眼鏡公司
2.5.6 Leisure/Pleasure
2.5.6.1 ALHAMBRA CIGAR AND CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING COMPANY [MANILA, P.I.]
2.5.6.2 BRITISH-AMERICAN TOBACCO COMPANY (CHINA), LTD.
2.5.6.3 LIGGETT & MYERS TOBACCO COMPANY
2.5.6.4 MAERK, O.G. [SHANGHAI]
2.5.6.5 MCBAIN, GEORGE [MCBAIN IMPORTS LIMITED]
2.5.6.6 NA
2.5.6.6.1 Arthos Cigars
2.5.6.7 REDSTONE I.
2.5.6.7.1 BALKAN SOBRANIE
2.5.6.8 W.D. & H.O. Wills [Imperial Tobacco Group] [B.A.T.] (Bristol & London)
2.5.6.8.1 Three Castles
2.5.6.9 GIESEL & COMPANY, LD.
2.5.6.10 BACARDI
2.5.6.11 BASS BREWERY
2.5.6.12 BOLS DISTILLERIES, LTD.
2.5.6.13 CALDBECK, MACGREGOR & CO., LTD.
2.5.6.14 CLERICI, BEDONI & COMPANY [IMPORT DEPARTMENT]
2.5.6.15 FRAZAR & COMPANY
2.5.6.16 GARNER, QUELCH & CO.
2.5.6.17 GUINNESS SON & COMPANY, ARTHUR [alias ST.JAMES GATE BREWERY]
2.5.6.18 HEIDSIECK & COMPANY, WALBAUM
2.5.6.19 HENNESSY & COMPANY, JAS
2.5.6.20 SLOWE & COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.6.21 INTERNATIONAL RECREATION CLUB [THE]
2.5.6.22 LYCEUM THEATRE
2.5.6.23 BALLET ART STUDIO OF MRS. MAKLETZOVA
2.5.6.24 EDDIE CAFE
2.5.6.25 NEVERS, JACQUELINE [DANGING LESSONS]
2.5.6.26 NEW MAXIM'S CAFE
2.5.6.27 REMINGTON ARMS COMPANY, INC.
2.5.6.28 ASTOR HOUSE HOTEL [RICHARDS' HOTEL AND RESTAURANT, alias PUJIANG HOTEL]
2.5.6.29 HALL & HOLTZ, LTD.
2.5.6.30 WEEKS & COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.6.31 GANDE, PRICE & COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.6.32 APOLLO THEATRE
2.5.6.33 CARLTON THEATRE
2.5.6.34 ISIS THEATRE [alias SHANGHAI THEATRE]
2.5.6.35 NANYANG BROTHERS TOBACCO COMPANY
2.5.6.36 WILLIAMS COMPANY, T.C.
2.5.6.37 WING TAI VO TOBACCO CORPORATION
2.5.6.38 隆烟號 [常熟江永]
2.5.6.39 籌備寕浦捲烟同業公會
2.5.6.40 義泰烟袋號
2.5.6.41 利興煙公司
2.5.6.42 DAWSON COMPANY, PETER
2.5.6.43 RICHARDS & COMPANY, LIMITED, JOHN
2.5.6.44 寳多洋行
2.5.6.45 CHINA GRAND THEATRE 中國大戲院
2.5.6.46 CHINA THEATRE 中國影戲院
2.5.6.47 DAWUTAI DACING HALL
2.5.6.48 EMPIRE THEATRE 恩派亞影戲院
2.5.6.49 GONGWUTAI CINEMA 榮記共舞台
2.5.6.50 NANSHI MOVIE CLUB/FILM SOCIETY ? 南市通俗影戲社
2.5.6.51 OLYMPIC THEATRE
2.5.6.52 PATHE-ORIENT, LTD. 百代公司
2.5.6.53 GREAT WORLD 大世界
2.5.6.54 SMALL WORLD 小世界
2.5.6.55 SUN SUN DANCING HALL
2.5.6.56 TIANCHAN DANCING HALL
2.5.6.57 SINCERE COMPANY
2.5.6.58 WING ON COMPANY
2.5.6.59 SHANGHAI BANK [TOURISM DEPARTMENT]
2.5.6.60 共彂有奬購物搭用券彂行
2.5.6.61 新舞台
2.5.6.62 亦舞台
2.5.6.63 春華舞台
2.5.6.64 丹桂第一台
2.5.6.65 越舞臺
2.5.6.66 南京下關英商百利公司
2.5.6.67 新舞臺
2.5.6.68 存濟醫局
2.5.6.69 新愛倫影戲院
2.5.6.70 申江大戲院
2.5.6.71 孔雀公司
2.5.6.72 法國影戲院
2.5.6.73 新愛倫影戲院
2.5.6.74 共和影戲院
2.5.6.75 新蘇灘
2.5.6.76 閘北影戲院
2.5.6.77 笑舞台
2.5.6.78 大影戲園
2.5.6.79 厚和影片公司
2.5.6.80 英國電影事業日漸發逹某影片公司
2.5.6.81 聲舞臺分號
2.5.6.82 法國影戲院
2.5.6.83 華商滬江影戲院
2.5.7 Nutrition
2.5.7.1 BAKERITE COMPANY, FEDERAL INCORPORATED, U.S.A.
2.5.7.2 CHOCOLATE SHOP [BAKERITE COMPANY]
2.5.7.3 EGGSELL (EXCEL) EGG COMPANY [RAKUSEN'S EGGSELL COMPANY]
2.5.7.4 VENTURI, F. [VENTURIS' SPECTIAL STORE OF ITALIAN PROVISION]
2.5.7.5 AIKOSHA DAIRY
2.5.7.6 NESTLE & ANGLO-SWISS CONDENSED MILK COMPANY [later NESTLE MILK PRODUCTS (CHINA), LTD.]
2.5.7.7 CHINA TEA COMPANY, LTD.
2.5.7.8 GETZ, BROTHERS & COMPANY
2.5.7.8.1 Kilm Powdered Milk
2.5.7.9 CADBURY
2.5.7.9.1 Bournvillle Cocoa
2.5.7.10 中德商店
2.5.7.11 遊民工廠
2.5.7.12 上海潮州會館
2.5.7.13 元順公司
2.5.7.14 南京榮泰祥
2.5.7.15 中華公司
2.5.7.16 厚和公司
2.5.7.17 和室公司
2.5.7.18 萬金
2.5.8 Publicity/Propaganda
2.5.8.1 CHINESE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN 中國救濟婦孺總會
2.5.8.2 紅卍會永遠賑濟基本劵事務所
2.5.8.3 上海慈善救濟會
2.5.8.4 中華公司
2.5.8.5 善利全飛來福 
2.5.8.6 廣萬源善中廣蕙源外埠
2.5.8.7 漢口大達公司
2.5.8.8 中華公司
2.5.8.9 振華公司
2.5.8.10 義大利
2.5.8.11 杭州
2.5.8.12 兆元升元
2.5.8.13 仁裕
2.5.8.14 大吉祥
2.5.8.15 紹興 
2.5.8.16 義利源
2.5.8.17 億中
2.5.8.18 義成
2.5.8.19 全號
2.5.8.20 元利嘉興
2.5.8.21 永最利
2.5.8.22 南昌
2.5.8.23 福順祥
2.5.8.24 山東平民工廠
2.5.8.25 廣濟公司
2.5.8.26 或俟商店
2.5.8.27 上海㳺民工廠
2.5.8.28 無錫旅滬同鄉會
2.5.8.29 廣濟公司
2.5.9 Urban service, energy & transportation
2.5.9.1 ADMIRAL ORIENTAL LINE [PACIFIC STEAMSHIP COMPANY]
2.5.9.2 CHINESE STATE RAILWAYS
2.5.9.3 NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA [N.Y.K.] [JAPAN MAIL STEAMSHIP CO.]
2.5.9.4 OSAKA SHOSEN KAISHA [O.S.K.]
2.5.9.5 PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP [P.M.] [PORTLAND ASIATIC S.S. KAI CO., OCCIDENTAL & ORIENTAL STEAMSHIP CO., alias TOYO KISEN SHA, ORIENTAL S.S. CO.]
2.5.9.6 PENINSULAR & ORIENTAL STEAMSHIP NAVIGATION COMPANY [P. & O. S.N. CO.]
2.5.9.7 SHANGHAI GAS COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.9.8 TOYO KISEN KAISHA [T.K.K.]
2.5.9.9 FOCH & COMPANY, N.
2.5.9.10 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY (OF CHINA), LTD. [G.E.C.]
2.5.9.11 LEA RECORDER COMPANY, LD.
2.5.9.12 MUNICIPAL ELECTRICY DEPARTMENT [OFFICE]
2.5.9.13 AMERICAN LINE [UNITED STATES LINES af. 1932]
2.5.9.14 ATLANTIC TRANSPORT LINE
2.5.9.15 BARBER STEAMSHIP LINES, INCORPORATED
2.5.9.16 BLUE FUNNEL LINE [THE] [OCEAN STEAMSHIP COMPANY]
2.5.9.17 BRITISH-INDIA APCAR STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY, LTD. [alias B.I.S.N. CO., LD.]
2.5.9.18 CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO. ROYAL MAIL STEAMSHIP LINE [C.P.]
2.5.9.19 CHINA IMPORT & EXPORT LUMBER COMPANY, LD.
2.5.9.20 CHINA NAVIGATION COMPANY, LIMITED [C.N. CO., LTD]
2.5.9.21 COLUMBIA PACIFIC SHIPPING COMPANY
2.5.9.22 EAST ASIATIC COMPANY, LIMITED
2.5.9.23 EASTERN AND AUSTRALIAN STEAMSHIP CO. LTD., [E. & A.]
2.5.9.24 FURNESS (FAR EAST), LTD.
2.5.9.25 GLEN LINE EASTERN AGENCIES, LTD.
2.5.9.26 GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY
2.5.9.27 HAMBURG AMERIKA LINIE [SHANGHAI FILIALE]
2.5.9.28 HARRISONS, KING & IRWIN
2.5.9.29 LEYLAND LINE
2.5.9.30 LLOYD TRIESTINO STEAMSHIP NAVIGATION COMPANY
2.5.9.31 MAGILL & COMPANY, JAMES
2.5.9.32 MARSHALL & COMPANY, G.N., LD.
2.5.9.33 MESSAGERIES MARITIMES DE France, M.M.
2.5.9.34 RED STAR LINE
2.5.9.35 ROBERT DOLLAR COMPANY
2.5.9.36 SOUTH MANCHURIA RAILWAY COMPANY [S.M.R.], DAIREN
2.5.9.37 STRUTHERS & BARRY
2.5.9.38 TAMPA INTER-OCEAN S.S. COMPANY
2.5.9.39 U.S. SHIPPING BOARD
2.5.9.40 WHITE STAR DOMINION LINE
2.5.9.41 WILCOX-HAYES COMPANY, INC.
2.5.9.42 JUNKER & RUH
2.5.9.43 SHANGHAI POWER COMPANY [Zhabei electric power plant]
2.5.9.44 Shanghai telegraph office
2.5.9.45 China Mutual Steam Navigation Company, Ltd.
2.5.9.46 Moller & Company
2.5.9.47 六河溝煤礦公司
2.5.9.48 上海聯義熟煤公司
2.5.9.49 北票煤鑛股份有限公司
2.5.9.50 膠濟鐵路管理局
2.5.9.51 滬杭甬鐵路管理局
2.5.9.52 津浦鐵路
2.6 Advertising targets: Consumers & Markets
2.6.1 An expanding market impulsed by the first American firms: The first step toward mass consumption in Shanghai?
2.6.1.1 A trend toward mass production and consumption of goods, an effort to make products available to a wider range of consumers, if not the average Chinese people, a trend toward market democratization through the mass production of American and Chinese goods, which participated in the emergence of a society/culture of mass consumption. First American firms anxious to reach ordinary Chinese consumers, the average Chinese, if not the Chinese "masses" embodied by the "coolie" figure (Bacon, 1929: 756) "to delve deeply into the problem of using advertising as a means of reaching China "from top to bottom" with a variety of products (Sanger, 1921 : 58)
2.6.2 Yet a market that remained dual/a two-tiered market
2.6.2.1 Only 10% of well-doing in China, who could afford expensive foreign goods (considered as luxuries in China); yet they represented 50 to 50 million people, and that figure was constantly growing in the 1920s (Bacon, 1929 : 758).
2.6.2.2 90% of poor and illiterate Chinese (Bacon, 1929: 756) who remained at the margins of the market
2.6.3 An increasing market segmentation
2.6.3.1 A remarkable effort from advertising professionals to better know/understand consumers
2.6.3.2 A refined view of the market, an growing awareness of consumers' sex (first women, then men), age (especially children and babies), social classes, personal tastes
2.6.3.2.1 Women constituted advertisers' primary targets, for two main reasons, refering to either two visions of feminity or two types of women
2.6.3.2.1.1 Mothers and housewives, as main/direct purchasers of domestic goods, were a privileged target for advertisers
2.6.3.2.1.2 Sexy women (Modern girl) or ladies (New Woman), as tastemakers and fashion leaders, and sex appeals while addressing male consumers
3 System/configuration of mediums (P1, P2, P3, P6)
3.1 Preeminence of (Chinese) press advertising over outdoor advertising (Bacon, 1929)
3.1.1 Outdoor/3D advertising (2,5 million dollars/year)
3.1.1.1 Three types of "classical" mediums and two main materials following their own rhythmic patterns for maintenance and rental (Bacon, 1929 : 766)
3.1.1.1.1 2000 billboards
3.1.1.1.1.1 500 paper poster boards
3.1.1.1.1.2 1500 painted boards (repainted every month)
3.1.1.1.2 Painted signs on walls (rented by the year)
3.1.1.2 Two main standards (Crow, 1926 ; Bacon, 1929), refering to two non exclusive spatial strategies
3.1.1.2.1 Large-size "24 sheet boards" (11x25 feet) : erected at main crossroads, based on mass effect, strategic location (Bacon, 1929: 766)
3.1.1.2.2 Small 12 sheet boards or single poster boards (30 x 40 inches), disseminated throughout the entire city, particulary adapted to narrow Chinese streets and short distance movements of Chinese people in their daily life, restricted to the neighborhood (Crow, 1926)
3.1.1.2.3 Odd sizes (Crow, 1926)
3.1.1.3 More and more illuminated boards and signs (?) yet restricted to the most powerful companies, or to small shopsigns
3.1.1.3.1 First neon signs initiated by Oriental Advertising Agency (first charge, no monthly rental) (Bacon, 1929. 759) before the advent of Claude Neon Lights, Fed. Inc. (1929)
3.1.1.4 Residual sniping (Bacon, 1929 : 765) before the enforcement of municipal regulations in 1929-1930
3.1.2 Indoor/2D/printed advertising
3.1.2.1 Publishing house
3.1.2.1.1 Oriental Press
3.1.2.1.2 Commercial Press: printed 2/3 of the books read in China, employed more than 5000 employees (Bacon, 1929 : 760)
3.1.2.1.3 Willow Pattern Press
3.1.2.2 Growing importance of newspapers for he nascent advertising profession, and conversely, growing importance of advertising revenues for newspapers (10,5 million dollars/year); 3300 publications of all kinds in China (Bacon, 1929 : 755) : more than 100 in Shanghai only (Bacon, 1929 : 761)
3.1.2.2.1 Growth and modernization of Chinese newspapers, which tended to become commercial enterprises (6 millions dollars/year = 80%); 350 Chinese dailies ; 7 large foreign dailies in Shanghai (6000 to 7000 daily circulation ; 5 large Chinese dailies, among which 2 giants (more than 100 000 daily circulation) and 3 large papers (10 000 daily circulation) (Bacon, 1929 : 755).
3.1.2.2.1.1 Shenbao (1 million dollar/year) (Bacon, 1929 : 761)
3.1.2.2.1.2 Xinwenbao
3.1.2.2.2 Foreign newspapers remained stable if not "conservative", despite the emergence of a strong American press, able to compete with the pionneering British press (2 millions dollars/year= 20%)
3.1.2.2.2.1 North China Herald (1850)/North China Daily News (1864)
3.1.2.2.2.2 China Press
3.1.2.2.2.3 Shanghai Evening Post and Mercury
A1 Floating Topic

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