Biomedical Engineering Areas

Add by dsmail903 | Oct 09, 2016 21:53  171 |  4
Biomedical Engineering Areas
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BME
1 Biomedical Imaging
1.1 Build / Model
1.1.1 fMRI
1.1.2 PET
1.1.3 fNIRS
1.1.4 X-ray
1.2 Measure
1.2.1 X-ray
1.2.2 Light
1.2.2.1 Can we "scan" cells with this tech for mutations?
1.2.3 Ultrasound
1.2.4 Magnetic field
1.2.5 Radioactive pharmaceuticals
1.3 Problem
1.3.1 motion when taking pictures
2 Biomedical Image Processing
2.1 Problem
2.1.1 quantify function (movement, time, dimensions ...)
2.1.2 resolution of images
2.1.3 variations
2.1.3.1 human factor of the "scanner"
2.1.3.2 different protocols and standards in imaging machines
2.1.3.3 different machines ...
2.1.3.4 differences in people and the situation
2.1.4 image size
2.1.5 human error in analysis
2.2 Measure
2.2.1 movement
2.2.2 time
2.2.3 dimensions
2.3 Model
2.3.1 quantify the data in images
2.3.2 identify stage of a disease
2.3.3 multi dimensional models
2.3.3.1 image modality
2.3.3.2 biology/chemistry of interst
2.3.3.3 disease/wellness
2.4 Build
2.4.1 computer analysis
2.4.2 Mammograms
2.4.2.1 find patterns / anamolies
2.4.2.1.1 microcalcifications
2.4.2.1.2 spicular lesion
2.4.2.1.3 mass
2.4.3 Biomarkers
2.4.3.1 observe metabolic sites in the body
2.4.4 Radiomics
2.4.4.1 add genomic data to it
2.4.4.2 combine genomic data with imaging data and create a matric and group the patient(s image)
2.4.4.3 goal: e.g. better treatment plan (personalized)
3 Electronics and Instrumentation
3.1 Measure
3.1.1 microprocessors (Arduino)
3.1.2 biological data and transform it into electronic data
3.1.2.1 sleep
3.1.2.1.1 Subtopic 1
3.1.2.2 what can be measured
3.1.3 Wearable Biomedical Sensors
3.1.3.1 aminent sensor
3.1.3.2 werables
3.1.3.2.1 outside of the body
3.1.3.2.1.1 noise
3.1.3.2.1.2 noinvasive
3.1.3.2.1.3 e.g.
3.1.3.2.1.3.1 tatoo (sweat, heartbeat...)
3.1.3.2.2 inside
3.1.3.2.2.1 invasive
3.1.3.2.2.2 less noisy
3.1.3.3 What sensors are out there?
3.1.4 wifi as communication
3.1.5 needs to be passive, people don't want to spend attention.
3.2 Model
3.2.1 examples
3.2.1.1 fall detection
3.2.2 bio signal processing
3.2.2.1 cheap software now available
3.2.2.2 models to extract relevant measures from noise signal
3.2.3 take noise into account
3.3 Build
3.3.1 integration with robots that act on the signals from the subject
3.3.2 use the easier to monitor signals to help other sensors to find the right time to take a signal
3.3.3 Monitoring the Brain Under Anesthesia
3.3.3.1 brainwave ...
3.3.4 Tripolar Centric Ring Electrode for EEG
3.3.5 body sensor networks
3.3.5.1 networks of wireless sensors
3.3.6 e textile
3.3.6.1 sensors in cloat
3.3.7 micro sensors under the skin
3.3.8 automatic despenser of optimise medication intake for motor desease based on sensor data
3.3.9 Glucose Monitoring Contact Lenses
4 Computing
4.1 Problem
4.1.1 Bioinformatics reveals dynamic molecular and cellular processes
4.1.1.1 task
4.1.1.1.1 mapping, visualizing and recognizing patterns in sequences and expression of DNA and proteins
4.1.1.1.2 analysis of protein structures
4.1.1.1.3 computer modeling of molecular pathways
4.1.1.2 areas
4.1.1.2.1 Genomics - the DNA sequnce of our genes
4.1.1.2.2 Transcriptomics - the translation of DNA into RNA
4.1.1.2.3 Functional Genomics - the dynamic aspects of gene & protein function & interactions
4.1.1.2.4 Proteomics - the structure & and large-scale composition of cell protein
4.1.1.2.5 Metabolomics - the chemical processes involoving cell metabolites
4.1.1.2.6 Systems Biology - addresses integrated systems of biological components at all levels
4.1.1.2.7 System Medicine - Focuses on the human body
4.1.1.2.7.1 integrate all the seperate areas into one system framework
4.1.1.2.7.2 looks at different types of data
4.1.1.2.7.2.1 Omics , Clinical, Mobile, Sensor & Population Data
4.1.1.2.7.2.2 Multiscale Spatiotemporal Imaging
4.1.1.2.7.3 then analyses the data and create system model
4.1.1.2.7.4 goal: to find
4.1.1.2.7.4.1 Drug Discovery & Repositioning
4.1.1.2.7.4.2 Disease Mechanisms
4.1.1.2.7.4.3 Precision Medicine & Surgery
4.1.1.2.8 genetic engineering
4.1.1.2.9 synthetic biology
4.1.2 Computational Biology
4.1.2.1 the quantitative study of physiological systems at more macro levels.
4.1.2.2 e.g.
4.1.2.2.1 The Physiome Project - repositories of ECG and other signals for both normal and pathological cases.
4.1.2.2.2 Kaggle
4.1.3 Biomedical/Health Informatics
4.1.3.1 informatics as applied to almost all other categories of medicine (outside of genomics)
4.1.3.2 e.g.
4.1.3.2.1 smart houses
4.1.3.2.2 wearables
4.1.3.2.3 smarter instruments
4.1.3.2.4 Automatic Reminders
4.1.3.2.5 Electronic Medical Records
4.1.3.2.5.1 reducing errors
4.1.4 Different Protocols of the Machines
4.1.5 Why to output the signal
4.1.5.1 sometimes only one -> display -> use adapter that splits signal and emits it via messaging
4.2 Measure
4.2.1 large amounts of data
4.2.2 Source:
4.2.2.1 paper records transform to electronic records
4.2.2.2 medical imaging
4.2.2.3 epidemiological and clinical trial data
4.2.2.4 insurance and payment records
4.2.3 film bacteria (in timelaps) and anlyse their growth accross time
4.2.4 automatical stream analytics on vital signs
4.2.4.1 resting heart rate
4.2.4.2 others
4.2.5 average patiant
4.3 Model
4.3.1 correlate gene sequences with feature of humans/objects
4.3.2 includes the area of computational modelling and Physiological Systems Modeling
4.4 Build
4.4.1 personalize treatment based on genetic markers of a person
4.4.2 you on a chip
4.4.2.1 bioreactors
4.4.2.2 biomaterials
4.4.3 a data base that analysis different types of data, different diseases and existing drugs to find new usages
4.4.4 Accurate Monitoring of vital signs
4.4.5 watchful infrastructure that monitor patients automatically based on models
4.4.6 Advisory for Normal and Sick People based on werables
4.4.7 telemedicine
4.4.7.1 expert knowledge can made availble more easy
4.4.7.2 security of transmissoin and data !
5 Mechanics
5.1 Problem
5.1.1 Biomechanics
5.1.1.1 areas
5.1.1.1.1 mechanics used to augment biological performance
5.1.1.1.2 mechanics to model biological systems
5.1.1.1.3 The difference is that the mechanics of biological systems are typically far more complex than
5.1.2 Biorobotics
5.1.2.1 fuled by
5.1.2.1.1 advances in mechanics and materials,
5.1.2.1.2 cheap and miniature computers for control.
5.1.2.2 goal
5.1.2.2.1 mimic biology
5.1.2.2.2 provide assitance to humans
5.1.2.2.3 assist in rehabilitation
5.1.2.2.4 train surgents/nurses
5.1.3 reduce invasiveness
5.2 Measure
5.3 Model
5.3.1 motion of the body
5.3.1.1 performance of Olympic athletes
5.3.1.2 and race horses
5.3.1.3 gait of patients who have suffered strokes
5.3.2 tremor remove / filtering
5.4 Build
5.4.1 artifical organs
5.4.2 stents
5.4.3 focus on cost and accessability (mainframe vs pc)
5.4.4 how do I make this thing light or minimal in every sense: volume, weight, price?
5.4.5 earlier stage of design essential:
5.4.5.1 what are the requirement?
5.4.5.2 what are the constraints (price, material, volume, weight …)?
5.4.5.3 What kind of maneuvers do they need (MVP Idea!)?
5.4.5.4 Make sure we have the right engineering tools.
5.4.6 surgical robots
5.4.6.1 One day, this could even lead to cellular surgery.
5.4.6.2 provide sensing, imaging, and motion control during surgical operation in order to achieve
5.4.6.2.1 vision
5.4.6.2.2 dexterity
5.4.6.2.3 precision
6 Materials
6.1 Problem
6.1.1 Size
6.1.1.1 BioMEMS / Microtechnology
6.1.1.1.1 size of a single cell
6.1.1.1.2 put sensor, actuators and other tech into a small space
6.1.1.1.3 related areas
6.1.1.1.3.1 rockets and satelites
6.1.1.1.4 e.g. from gastro to vascular: move 10 millimeter size to maybe 3 or 4, even 2, even 1, and less.
6.1.1.2 Nanotechnology
6.1.1.2.1 size of proteins and DNA and most complex chemicals.
6.1.1.2.2 microelectronic fabrication - build devices at these length scales ( 1 billionth of meter / nanometer)
6.1.1.2.3 physics is different on macro and nano level
6.1.1.2.3.1 fluids
6.1.1.2.3.1.1 The effects of momentum and viscosity, for example, influence how and whether fluids mix.
6.1.1.2.3.1.2 Some of these small-scale behaviors can be exploited for both diagnostic and therapeutic benefit.
6.1.1.2.3.2 light
6.1.1.2.3.2.1 3nm - reflected light we see is blue
6.1.1.2.3.2.2 4nm - reflected light we see is red
6.1.1.2.3.2.3 5nm - reflected light we see is heat
6.1.1.2.3.3 large surface area to volume
6.1.1.2.3.4 what is so special about nano scale?
6.1.1.2.4 cells/biological units interact on nano scale
6.1.2 Price
6.1.3 control (remote or autonomous)
6.1.3.1 passive, e.g. they rely on peristalsis (movement of the digestive system)
6.1.3.2 active, e.g small moving robots
6.1.3.2.1 e.g actuated by external or internal magnets.
6.1.3.2.2 e.g. using fuel cells that take energy from glucose
6.1.4 biocompatibility
6.2 Measure
6.2.1 new materials allow to measure continously on very small levels
6.3 Model
6.4 Build
6.4.1 Capsule to swallow with
6.4.1.1 camera
6.4.1.2 some processing
6.4.1.3 transmission
6.4.1.4 some battery when needed
6.4.2 capsule vor vascular system
6.4.2.1 e.g
6.4.2.1.1 MicroVAST
6.4.3 ph Electroded at 10 nanometer and integrated in an electronic circuit
6.4.4 Tiny (nano) accelerometers to detect falls by the elderly.
6.4.5 analysis on a small chip
6.4.5.1 e.g.
6.4.5.1.1 polymerase chain reaction used to analyse RNA
6.4.5.1.2 microelectrode arrays for use in cell cultures
6.4.5.1.2.1 grow nerv cells in micro patterns in this arrays
6.4.5.1.3 lab on a chip with micro fluids
6.4.5.1.3.1 do all of the processing like blood or urin on one microfabricated chip
6.4.5.1.3.2 put sample in and get a read out
6.4.5.1.3.3 are very specific in exactly what they can detect
6.4.5.1.3.4 Do it yourself
6.4.6 light based diagnostics and detection on nanoscale
6.4.7 nanotechnology for targeting drugs to cancer cells
6.4.7.1 Subtopic 1
6.4.8 nanotech for regeneration of complex tissues
6.4.8.1 We can make tissues that are very similar to biological tissues in function.
6.4.8.2 We can manufacture or fabricate tissues, cellular constructs that mimic the structure and function of biological tissues.
6.4.9 chip with organisms on them to scale experiments
6.4.9.1 Nano-SPEAR Recording
6.4.10 how to manifactur at nano scale?
7 Artifical Cells & Tissues
7.1 Problem
7.1.1 Biomaterials
7.1.1.1 fundamental understanding of the mechanics and materials properties of the devices
7.1.1.2 how tissue reacts
7.1.2 foreign body response
7.1.3 seeding cells on scaffolds
7.1.4 controlling host rejection reaction
7.1.5 managing the differentiation of stem chells
7.1.6 the vascularization of artifical tissue
7.1.7 mimic the complexity of the three dimensinal tissue
7.2 Measure
7.3 Model
7.4 Build
7.4.1 recode DNA to generate new surface receptors on immune cells that help these cells target cancer cells.
7.4.2 tricking bacteria into producing useful biological compounds such as insulin produced from recombinant DNA.
7.4.3 Drug delivery technology has also improved dramatically, with various means of encapsulation. This enables the release of active agents at a pre-programmed rate and often at a targeted location in the body.
7.4.4 Drug Delivery
7.4.4.1 realease
7.4.4.1.1 make a little microsphere and just by the choice of the polymer, that controls it, by the solubility of the drug, that controls it.
7.4.4.1.2 size of particles
7.4.4.2 use mostly polymers or lipids
7.4.4.3 intelligent micro chips to remote control drug delivery
7.4.4.4 nano particles
7.4.4.4.1 can be delivered to a specific cell and to no other
7.4.4.4.2 deliver new drugs like siRNA to scilence genes or DNA to ativate
7.4.4.4.3 created to target particular cells by decorate their surface with specific chemicals or molecules, that home in on a cell surface molecule
7.4.4.4.3.1 surface is key to open the cell but also to not be pick up by macrophages
7.4.4.5 Single-Cell Analytics for Drug Discovery
7.4.4.5.1 take single cell from e.g. blood, spleen, other tissue
7.4.4.5.2 encapsulate in tiny drops
7.4.4.5.3 capture the secreted product
7.4.4.5.4 this include the cell, the product (e.g. anti body) and chemistries to observe interaction between antibody and target
7.4.4.5.5 anlyze that and if there is some interesting interaction pull that drop out
7.4.4.6 Microvalves to select the right cancer drug
7.4.4.6.1 Problem: receptor not active for this drug
7.4.4.6.2 but could be active for a combination or a different drug
7.4.4.6.3 take biopsy cells put them into microvalves
7.4.4.6.4 those are exposed to different combinations
7.4.4.6.5 also testing viruses instead of drugs
7.4.4.6.6 low cost (10$)
7.4.5 Scaffolding to grow cells
7.4.5.1 three-dimensional topography designed so as to encourage cell infiltration.
7.4.5.2 options
7.4.5.2.1 polymer chemistry and folding
7.4.5.2.2 3d replica printing
7.4.5.2.3 electrospinning to create porous materials and pathways
7.4.5.3 often degradable, leaving only the tissue in the body
7.4.5.4 process
7.4.5.4.1 take polymer scaffold, of a certain shape you want depending of organ/tissue
7.4.5.4.2 put certain cells on it
7.4.5.4.3 put it in a bioreactor and grow it
7.4.5.4.3.1 gives nutrients and the right mechanical force
7.4.5.4.4 transplant it
7.4.6 create arteficial tissues and organs (tissue engineering)
7.4.6.1 autologous transplant
7.4.6.2 combine mammalian cells with materials to create new tissues and organs
7.4.6.3 types
7.4.6.3.1 in humans
7.4.6.3.1.1 skin
7.4.6.3.1.2 corneas
7.4.6.3.1.3 blood vessels
7.4.6.3.1.4 bones
7.4.6.3.1.5 cartilage
7.4.6.3.2 in animals
7.4.6.3.2.1 intestines
7.4.6.3.2.2 spinal cords
7.4.6.3.2.3 ureters
7.4.6.3.2.4 bladders
7.4.6.3.2.5 etc.
7.4.6.4 steps
7.4.6.4.1 build a scaffold
7.4.6.4.2 seed cells on the scaffold
7.4.6.4.3 incorporate parts
7.4.6.4.3.1 nano wires
7.4.6.4.3.2 nano tubes
7.4.6.4.3.3 proteins
7.4.6.4.3.4 particles that release growth factors in controlled ways
7.4.6.5 challanges
7.4.6.5.1 find the right materials
7.4.6.5.2 make sure tissue is not rejected
7.4.6.5.2.1 reduce the foreign body reaction by local nano tech that immun supressors at the organ, not the complete body
7.4.6.5.2.1.1 drug release
7.4.6.5.2.1.2 enact RNA interference to knock down gene expressions
7.4.6.5.3 how to grow the cells the right way
7.4.6.5.4 do cryo-preservation
7.4.6.5.4.1 keep them alive until use
8 Genetic Engineering & Synthetic Biology
8.1 Problem
8.1.1 genetic engineering
8.1.1.1 recorind genes to produce new products
8.1.2 synthetic biology
8.1.2.1 entire plasmids and chromosomes synthesized as a standard library of modules
8.2 Measure
8.3 Model
8.3.1 circuits of genetic parts
9 Cellular & Molecular Biomechanics
9.1 Problem
9.1.1 how do cells sense mechanical forces, important for
9.1.1.1 cell growth
9.1.1.2 movement
9.1.1.3 gene expression
9.1.2 mechanical stimulation causes surprising metabolic signaling cascades that can even change a cell's phenotype.
9.1.3 how do cells utilize force to explore environments
9.1.4 nano tech help us to understand the impact on force on the smallest "machine" in the body, protein
9.1.5 structural vs mechanical point of view
9.1.6 immune cells look for microbes in our body
9.1.6.1 know the receptors thay utilize to bind to microbes
9.1.6.2 know little about force
9.1.6.2.1 cell needs to create force to rupture the bactiria from a surface
10 Agricultural & Environmental Engineering
10.1 Areas

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